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When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast

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When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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OG 2018 New RC
Line
    When asteroids collide, some collisions cause
    an asteroid to spin faster; others slow it down. If
    asteroids are all monoliths—single rocks—undergoing
    random collisions, a graph of their rotation rates
(5)
    should show a bell-shaped distribution with statistical
    “tails” of very fast and very slow rotators. If asteroids
    are rubble piles, however, the tail representing the
    very fast rotators would be missing, because any
    loose aggregate spinning faster than once every few
(10)
    hours (depending on the asteroid’s bulk density)
    would fly apart. Researchers have discovered that
    all but five observed asteroids obey a strict limit on
    rate of rotation. The exceptions are all smaller than
    200 meters in diameter, with an abrupt cutoff for
(15)
    asteroids larger than that.


    The evident conclusion—that asteroids larger than
    200 meters across are multicomponent structures
    or rubble piles—agrees with recent computer modeling
    of collisions, which also finds a transition at that
(20)
    diameter. A collision can blast a large asteroid to bits,
    but after the collision those bits will usually move
    slower than their mutual escape velocity. Over several
    hours, gravity will reassemble all but the fastest
    pieces into a rubble pile. Because collisions among
(25)
    asteroids are relatively frequent, most large bodies
    have already suffered this fate. Conversely, most
    small asteroids should be monolithic, because impact
    fragments easily escape their feeble gravity.


(Book Question: 537)
The passage implies which of the following about the five asteroids mentioned in line 12?
A. Their rotation rates are approximately the same.
B. They have undergone approximately the same number of collisions.
C. They are monoliths.
D. They are composed of fragments that have escaped the gravity of larger asteroids.
E. They were detected only recently.




(Book Question: 538)
The discovery of which of the following would call into question the conclusion mentioned in line 16?
A. An asteroid 100 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
B. An asteroid 150 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of 20 times per hour
C. An asteroid 250 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
D. An asteroid 500 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per hour
E. An asteroid 1,000 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once every 24 hours






(Book Question: 539)
According to the passage, which of the following is a prediction that is based on the strength of the gravitational attraction of small asteroids?
A. Small asteroids will be few in number.
B. Small asteroids will be monoliths.
C. Small asteroids will collide with other asteroids very rarely.
D. Most small asteroids will have very fast rotation rates.
E. Almost no small asteroids will have very slow rotation rates.






(Book Question: 540)
The author of the passage mentions “escape velocity” (see line 22) in order to help explain which of the following?
A. The tendency for asteroids to become smaller rather than larger over time
B. The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
C. The frequency with which collisions among asteroids occur
D. The rotation rates of asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter
E. The tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2017, 05:02
Can Anyone explain the answers to question 2 and 4 in detail. Also what could be the level of this official RC ? I find it very hard. Got only 2 answers correct.

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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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The official answer can be found here https://books.google.co.in/books?id=f5v ... %3F&f=true
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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 14:18
anje29 wrote:
The official answer can be found here https://books.google.co.in/books?id=f5v ... %3F&f=true



Hi anje29,

The above URL shows explanation for only one question! If you have the rights to view other questions, you can help us out here!


Thanks,
ashygoyal

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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 14:43
somtsat99 wrote:
Can Anyone explain the answers to question 2 and 4 in detail. Also what could be the level of this official RC ? I find it very hard. Got only 2 answers correct.


Although I too got Q4 wrong, but This is what I can relate to after seeing the correct answer.

The author of the passage mentions “escape velocity” (see line 22) in order to help explain which of the following?
A. The tendency for asteroids to become smaller rather than larger over time
B. The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
C. The frequency with which collisions among asteroids occur
D. The rotation rates of asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter
E. The tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions

Refer to these lines from passage:
A collision can blast a large asteroid to bits,
but after the collision those bits will usually move
slower than their mutual escape velocity.


Collision -> Large to Bits (small ones)
After collision -> Bits slower than mutual escape velocity.

Small ones (bits) will move slower than what? Large ones i guess.
So, mutual escape velocity is associated to large ones only.

Thus, look for options that talk about large ones only!



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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 09:37
somtsat99 wrote:
Can Anyone explain the answers to question 2 and 4 in detail. Also what could be the level of this official RC ? I find it very hard. Got only 2 answers correct.


Btw, hi ashygoyal, I can read Q2 only, so I will post its explanation. But I will not type as exact as what's written in OG, because I believe that the following (in my own words) will better help test takers understand how to understand the question and how to drive to the correct answer.

My 2 cents on Q2.

The discovery of which of the following would call into question the conclusion mentioned in line 16?

According to the passage, the conclusion is "that asteroids larger than 200 meters across are multicomponent structures or rubble piles".
--> We're talking about "asteroids larger than 200 meters across", so eliminate (A) and (B) as these options mention asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter.

A. An asteroid 100 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
B. An asteroid 150 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of 20 times per hour[/color
]

In order to weaken the above conclusion, we need to prove that asteroids larger than 200 meters across are NOT multicomponent structures or rubble piles.
Now, let's ask "what evidence does the author use to reach the conclusion??" --> The author argues earlier in the 1st paragraph that "If asteroids are rubble piles, however, the tail representing the very fast rotators would be missing, because any loose aggregate spinning faster than once every few hours (depending on the asteroid’s bulk density) would fly apart."
. In other words, rubble piles don't rotate faster than once every few hours, because if they do, they would fly apart.

It seems to be quite clear now, right? In order claim that asteroids larger than 200 meters across are NOT multicomponent structures or rubble piles, we just need to prove that these asteroids rotate faster than once every few hours, a character that is totally contrary to that of rubble piles!

[color=#ec008c]C. An asteroid 250 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
--> Still slower than "once every few hours". OUT

D. An asteroid 500 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per hour
--> Yes, that's it! "a rate of once per hour" demonstrates that the asteroid rotates faster than once every few hours. CORRECT!

E. An asteroid 1,000 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once every 24 hours
--> Still slower than "once every few hours". OUT

Hope this helps!

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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 11:39
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C,D,B,E...Time-9 mins

The passage implies which of the following about the five asteroids mentioned in line 12?
A. Their rotation rates are approximately the same.
B. They have undergone approximately the same number of collisions.
C. They are monoliths.
D. They are composed of fragments that have escaped the gravity of larger asteroids.
E. They were detected only recently.

"five observed asteroids obey a strict limit on
rate of rotation. The exceptions are all smaller than
200 meters in diameter"

"Conversely, most
small asteroids should be monolithic"




The discovery of which of the following would call into question the conclusion mentioned in line 16?
A. An asteroid 100 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
B. An asteroid 150 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of 20 times per hour
C. An asteroid 250 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
D. An asteroid 500 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per hour
E. An asteroid 1,000 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once every 24 hours

"If asteroids
are rubble piles, however, the tail representing the
very fast rotators would be missing, because any
loose aggregate spinning faster than once every few
hours (depending on the asteroid’s bulk density)
would fly apart."-This means Ruble piles, which are the big ones are slow; Monolithic's, the small ones are fast. The definition of fast being-Spinning faster than once every few hours.

So the conclusion is---Asteroids>200m would spin slowly..
Option D says just the opposite.



According to the passage, which of the following is a prediction that is based on the strength of the gravitational attraction of small asteroids?
A. Small asteroids will be few in number.
B. Small asteroids will be monoliths.
C. Small asteroids will collide with other asteroids very rarely.
D. Most small asteroids will have very fast rotation rates.
E. Almost no small asteroids will have very slow rotation rates.


"Conversely, most
small asteroids should be monolithic"



The author of the passage mentions “escape velocity” (see line 22) in order to help explain which of the following?
A. The tendency for asteroids to become smaller rather than larger over time
B. The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
C. The frequency with which collisions among asteroids occur
D. The rotation rates of asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter
E. The tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions

"A collision can blast a large asteroid to bits,
but after the collision those bits will usually move
slower than their mutual escape velocity. Over several
hours, gravity will reassemble all but the fastest
pieces into a rubble pile."

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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 19:04
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somtsat99 wrote:
Can Anyone explain the answers to question 2 and 4 in detail. Also what could be the level of this official RC ? I find it very hard. Got only 2 answers correct.

Quote:
(Book Question: 538)
The discovery of which of the following would call into question the conclusion mentioned in line 16?
A. An asteroid 100 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
B. An asteroid 150 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of 20 times per hour
C. An asteroid 250 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
D. An asteroid 500 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per hour
E. An asteroid 1,000 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once every 24 hours

The conclusion mentioned in line 16 is that "asteroids larger than 200 meters across are multicomponent structures or rubble piles." We are also told that rubble piles would fly apart if they spin faster than once every few hours. Any asteroid spinning faster than once every few hours must not be a rubble pile.

Choice (D) is an example of an asteroid larger than 200 meters that DOES spin faster than once every few hours. That asteroid must not be a rubble pile, going against the conclusion in line 16.

Quote:
(Book Question: 540)
The author of the passage mentions “escape velocity” (see line 22) in order to help explain which of the following?
A. The tendency for asteroids to become smaller rather than larger over time
B. The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
C. The frequency with which collisions among asteroids occur
D. The rotation rates of asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter
E. The tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions

If the bits moved FASTER than their mutual escape velocity, then the bits would "escape" from each other and the large asteroid would remain blown to bits. However, if the bits move SLOWER than their mutual escape velocity, the bits will not escape from each other and, instead, will reassemble due to gravity. Thus, after being blown to bits, most of the bits of the large asteroid will reassemble, explaining the tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions. (E) is the correct choice.
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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2017, 05:21
A very tough passage with good questions to practice .
Very good explanations .
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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2017, 01:04
Q2:
The discovery of which of the following would call into question the conclusion mentioned in line 16?
A. An asteroid 100 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
B. An asteroid 150 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of 20 times per hour
C. An asteroid 250 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per week
D. An asteroid 500 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per hour
E. An asteroid 1,000 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once every 24 hours

For me, the explanation for this question is the following evidence:
The evident conclusion—that asteroids larger than 200 meters across are multicomponent structures or rubble piles—agrees with recent computer modeling of collisions, which also finds a transition at that diameter. A collision can blast a large asteroid to bits, but after the collision those bits will usually move slower than their mutual escape velocity. Over several hours, gravity will reassemble all but the fastest pieces into a rubble pile
conclution: large asteroids >= 200m are multicomponent structures.
Reasoning: after collision, asteroids become bits. velocity of these bit < escape velocity. therefore, these bits remain and gravity reassemble over several hours to become rubble pile.

In D: An asteroid 500 meters in diameter rotating at a rate of once per hour
the large asteroid rotates once per hour. so gravity cannot reassemble and asteroids are not rubble piles. So weaken the argument.

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Re: When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2017, 01:13
Q4
The author of the passage mentions “escape velocity” (see line 22) in order to help explain which of the following?
A. The tendency for asteroids to become smaller rather than larger over time
B. The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
C. The frequency with which collisions among asteroids occur
D. The rotation rates of asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter
E. The tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions

For me, choice B tell the opposite.
In the passage: "A collision can blast a large asteroid to bits,but after the collision those bits will usually moveslower than their mutual escape velocity"
it means velocity of these bit is slower than escape velocity, so they remain.
In choice B:The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
the fragments will reassemble with escape velocity. so its incorrect.

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When asteroids collide, some collisions cause an asteroid to spin fast [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2017, 12:59
somtsat99 wrote:
Can Anyone explain the answers to question 2 and 4 in detail. Also what could be the level of this official RC ? I find it very hard. Got only 2 answers correct.


Time Taken: 10mins 34seconds.
I got 1 question wrong (~Q4); Although I got it wrong as I fell for Option B, I didn't have a clear reason to rule our option E either. I should have been more diligent here.


Although people have spoken at large here, I would like to share my 2 cents here out of my analysis:

The author of the passage mentions “escape velocity” (see line 22) in order to help explain which of the following?
A. The tendency for asteroids to become smaller rather than larger over time
B. The speed with which impact fragments reassemble when they do not escape an asteroid’s gravitational attraction after a collision
C. The frequency with which collisions among asteroids occur
D. The rotation rates of asteroids smaller than 200 meters in diameter
E. The tendency for large asteroids to persist after collisions


Option B: The speed with which....Blah blah.
This option should have been ruled out of contention. The author mentions the escape velocity not to describe the speed with which the remaining parts are reassembled along side the asteriod but the speed which remaining parts don't achieve and hence remain part of the asteroid's gravitational pull.

A subtle but vast change in context here. Loved it!!
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