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# After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was

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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
HI,

Can some one explain 2 & 3 answers please.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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RaviChandra
HI,

Can some one explain 2 & 3 answers please.

Hi Both are inference questions, As far i read the passage.

Question 2 : According to the passage, a foreman in a United States auto company differed from a foreman in a Japanese auto company in that the foreman in the United States would?

Quote:
US federal law prohibited US foremen from joining or leading industrial unions.
this what we can infer from the last line of 1st para.

I chose A after POE.

For

Question 3 : The author of the passage mentions the "OH! NO!" system primarily in order to

Quote:
The 2nd para says that though Japanese unions empowered production workers to take key decision. The actual authority was with the foremen only..
The author then gives the example.

After doing the POE, I was left with B.

A: Not relevant.
B: sounds good-hold
C: WE cannot infer this.
D: The critics says this as a stress- reject.
E: The foreman exercised discretion over job assignments, training, transfers, and promotions(stated in the passage)- eliminated.

Hope it helps
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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RaviChandra
HI,

Can some one explain 2 & 3 answers please.
Q2: As above
Q3:
"Rather than being proactive, Japanese workers were forced to be reactive, the range of their responsibilities being far wider than their span of control.
For example, blah blah blah "

Therefore, the author introduced the "OH-NO" system in order to resolve the misconception about the Japanese workers characteristics.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
JarvisR:

Can you please explain on what basis did u choose option B for Question 3.
I came down to Answer D on this as i think OHH NOO isn't challenging anyhting.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
1B 2A 3B 4C

4 minutes 6 seconds .

Regards,
Manish Khare
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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Anish1992
Can anyone explain the answer to question no 3?

The Japanese model was often invoked as one in which authority decentralized to the shop floor empowered production workers to make key decisions. What these claims failed to recognize was that the actual delegation of authority was to the foreman, not the workers.

The above two lines are the first two lines of the second paragraph. Author said that CLAIMS FAILED TO RECOGNIZE THE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY. The remaining part of the paragraph explained so by giving examples.

E looks very convincing though. But if you read the first two lines of the second paragraph twice and ask yourself why the author is giving all the examples at the end, you will find that the author is trying to prove something written at the beginning of the 2nd paragraph. The author is not giving examples for E but for B.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
manishkhare
1B 2A 3B 4C

4 minutes 6 seconds .

Regards,
Manish Khare

4 mins 6 seconds

This sends shivers down my spine. I did the passage in 09 mins 12 seconds. Oh my Goodness. Your reading skills are just WOW

I got 4 on 4 but just look at the time.

How have you been doing on the Verbal Part of the test overall ? Can you please share your GMAT Prep Verbal Scores? manishkhare
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
manishkhare
1B 2A 3B 4C

4 minutes 6 seconds .

Regards,
Manish Khare

4 min 6 sec
Man, If you take only 4 min for long passage with such difficulty level, then you must be solving short passages within 3 min, CR questions within 1.5 min and SC questions within 30 sec.
With that it is just 38-42 minutes for entire verbal section. I just wonder how much time do you take for completing your verbal section?. Can you share your techniques for reading actively with such great speed.

P.S. :- I assume that time you have mentioned is total time i.e. time to read passage + time to solve questions and not only time to solve questions.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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Took 9 mins 30 seconds , including 3 mins 30 seconds to read
-The author does not provide an opinion
-The author describes unionism- its meaning in Japan , its meaning in the United Staes and helps clear a misconception on Unionism on Japan

1.

2.
"In the United States, the potential for such company unionism grew after 1979, but it had difficulty taking hold in the auto industry, where a single union represented workers from all companies, particularly since federal law prohibited foremen from joining or leading industrial unions."

3.
"What these claims failed to recognize was that the actual delegation of authority was to the foreman, not the workers."
The author uses the ―OH NO ― example to clear the misconception that workers were empowered in Japanese production units.

4.
"Because the "OH! NO!" system continually pushed the production process to the verge of breakdown in an effort to find the minimum resource requirement, critics described it as "management by stress."

By using the minimum amount of resources possible, the author implies that production costs would be as low as possible. Hence option C .
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
B
A
B
E --- I choose because the last sentence of the passage was saying "As soon as workers could meet production goals without working overtime", but after going through the answer choices, C is the right answer.

Taken 09 min 20 sec...
Manishkhare can you share your master technique for solving these kind of passages in less time.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
In question 3 , i have opted for option C.
In the passage, it says that rather than being proactive the Japanese workers are being reactive and then the passage cites the Oh no! example. From this i understood that Japanese people adopt this mechanism to "react" to the circumstances rather than estimating the resources (count) before hand (thus refraining from being proactive). Can you please help me understand where i went wrong in this question.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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sriharsha63
In question 3 , i have opted for option C.
In the passage, it says that rather than being proactive the Japanese workers are being reactive and then the passage cites the Oh no! example. From this i understood that Japanese people adopt this mechanism to "react" to the circumstances rather than estimating the resources (count) before hand (thus refraining from being proactive). Can you please help me understand where i went wrong in this question.
Quote:
B. challenge a particular misconception about worker empowerment in the Japanese auto industry
C. illustrate the kinds of problem-solving techniques encouraged by company unions in Japan
The "OH! NO!" system is not one that the production workers at Taichi Ohno proactively chose to adopt; rather it is one that the workers are forced to react to because the founder forced it upon them.

Let's break down the second paragraph: "The Japanese model was often invoked as one in which authority decentralized to the shop floor empowered production workers to make key decisions". However, "actual delegation of authority was to the foreman, not the workers." In other words, the Japanese model was often seen as one in which authority was delegated to production workers on the shop floor. The author believes this view was a misconception because, in reality, authority was delegated to the foreman and not to the workers on the shop floor. Thus, the foreman would have significant authority (job assignments, training, transfers, etc), while the authority (i.e. "initiative") of the production workers was limited to fine-tuning processes largely beyond their control. So the production workers could not take initiative and be proactive; rather, they could only react to the processes dictated by management.

Even though the Japanese model was seen as one that empowered production workers to make key decisions, in reality, production workers under the Japanese model had little control, if any, over key decisions. The "OH! NO!" system is cited as evidence in support of the author's view, which is that the Japanese model did NOT in fact empower production workers to make key decisions. Choice (B) fits with this analysis.

As for choice (C), the "OH! NO!" system does not "illustrate the kinds of problem-solving techniques encouraged by company unions in Japan". We have no idea if other companies in Japan utilized the "OH! NO!" system or similar techniques. All we know is that the system is an example of a production system that did not delegate significant authority to workers and that forced workers to be reactive rather than proactive.

I hope this helps!
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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2) A. not have been a member of an auto workers' union
"In the United States, the potential for such company unionism grew after 1979, but it had difficulty taking hold in the auto industry, where a single union represented workers from all companies, particularly since federal law prohibited foremen from joining or leading industrial unions."

3) Here's the first sentence in paragraph 2: The Japanese model was often invoked as one in which authority decentralized to the shop floor empowered production workers to make key decisions.
We discover later in the paragraph that this is a misconception: Rather than being proactive, Japanese workers were forced to be reactive, the range of their responsibilities being far wider than their span of control.
The system described is one example of this misconception, so the answer is B.
The last line describes the process: Because the "OH! NO!" system continually pushed the production process to the verge of breakdown in an effort to find the minimum resource requirement, critics described it as "management by stress."
Pushed the process to the verge of breakdown? It seems like a stretch to refer to that process as "effective." Moreover, we get this description in the context of a paragraph that is trying to convey the notion that what people think about the Japanese model is, at best, a distortion. The point isn't to show that such a model works well.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
could you please explain question-4. No where in question the cost is mentioned. I think ans should be B?
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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could you please explain question-4. No where in question the cost is mentioned. I think ans should be B?
Quote:
4. It can be inferred that the author of the passage sees which of the following as the primary advantage to companies in implementing the "OH! NO!" system?
(A) It permitted the foreman to take initiative.
(B) It minimized the effort required to produce automobiles.
(C) It ensured that production costs would be as low as possible.
(D) It allowed the foreman to control the production process.
(E) It required considerable worker empowerment to achieve managers' goals.
With the "OH! NO!" system, department managers are given "only 90 percent of the resources needed for production". Workers are then pushed until they meet production goals without overtime. At that point, resources are cut again, and the cycle is repeated. This system most likely involves CONSIDERABLE effort on the part of the workers and the department managers, so (B) should be eliminated. However, this approach would minimize the COSTS of production, since resources (and, thus, costs) are cut whenever production goals are met without overtime. (C) is the best option.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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RaviChandra
HI,

Can some one explain 2 & 3 answers please.

Ques 2: Look at the last 2 lines of para 1 , in the passage.

The lines say " but it had difficulty taking hold in the auto industry, where a single union represented workers from all companies, particularly since federal law prohibited foremen from joining or leading industrial unions. "

Ques 3, even I thought the answer was D. :p

Originally posted by rekhabishop on 14 Jul 2017, 22:46.
Last edited by rekhabishop on 15 Jul 2017, 20:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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Hi GMATNinja

For the 4th Question, the passage states : "Because the "OH! NO!" system continually pushed the production process to the verge of breakdown in an effort to find the minimum resource requirement”

From this I understand that the production process was always made to work on minimum resources/ requirement i.e. the minimum effort required to continue production. Hence I chose option B - but B also mentions “automobiles” and the OH!NO! statement in the passage doesn’t mention automobiles specifically. Is this why B is wrong? I didn’t consider C because I believed 'OH! NO!’ brought down resource requirement and not production costs.
Re: After the Second World War, unionism in the Japanese auto industry was [#permalink]
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