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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2013, 10:08
vasild wrote:
Ritesh, I actually believe that "Being heavily committed to a course of action" in E serves as a noun phrase and as a subject, not as a modifier.

(The state of) being heavily comitted is likely to cause ...


Yes - that's the way to think about the usage of "being" - add the words "the state of" or "the act of" in front of it and see if it makes sense.

This is a good example of when the usage of the word "being" is actually used in the correct answer of a GMAT question. Most of the time, we call it a "red flag" word - it's not necessarily wrong, but you should look elsewhere first.

But this question fits the rare situation that would allow the usage of "being" to be correct.

You can see more details about "being" as a red flag word - and specific situations in which it is actually correct by looking at this PDF: http://www.gmatpill.com/ebook/GMATPill- ... atclub.pdf

Also, we've posted a video explanation for this question here (click show answer): http://www.gmatpill.com/gmat-practice-t ... stion/2177
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 23:24
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I myself not favor rejection of 'being' just like that.

BEING is VERBING of the verb BE.

My query pertains to FACT that although option (C). as unclear pronoun antecedent for "IT", I found (E). not interesting either because 'BEING' is an INITIAL MODIFIER and should modify the following subject , but the sentence doesn't have a following subject.

Being heavily committed to a course of action,is likely to make an

Who is BEING HEAVILY COMMITTED ???

I know we have to take best option in SC. However, a discussion will enhance our knowledge and what GMAC thinks :)

Plz advise !!

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 23:37
I chose E, and it is the correct one.

By the way, in D, is there an apostrophe in the word "Executives"?

C should be rejected because of "it" being ambiguous.

D has no ambiguity problem, but the construction is so awkward.
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New post 14 Sep 2013, 08:36
TGC wrote:
I myself not favor rejection of 'being' just like that.

BEING is VERBING of the verb BE.

My query pertains to FACT that although option (C). as unclear pronoun antecedent for "IT", I found (E). not interesting either because 'BEING' is an INITIAL MODIFIER and should modify the following subject , but the sentence doesn't have a following subject.

Being heavily committed to a course of action,is likely to make an

Who is BEING HEAVILY COMMITTED ???

I know we have to take best option in SC. However, a discussion will enhance our knowledge and what GMAC thinks :)

Plz advise !!

Rgds,
TGC!


You have to be careful with present participles (-ing verb forms). Present participles are verbs when they have a helping verb, modifiers, or nouns (gerunds). In choice E, 'Being heavily committed' is a noun phrase led by the gerund 'Being'. That noun phrase is the subject of the sentence, not a leading modifier.

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New post 14 Sep 2013, 09:53
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HarishLearner wrote:
I chose E, and it is the correct one.

By the way, in D, is there an apostrophe in the word "Executives"?

C should be rejected because of "it" being ambiguous.

D has no ambiguity problem, but the construction is so awkward.


There is an apostrophe on Executives' in answer choice D. 'Being heavily committed to a course of action' is a noun phrase and it is the executives who are heavily committed so we use the possessive form of executives - 'Executive's being heavily committed'. This is probably more easily seen if we use a simpler construction - "Executives' heavy commitment". The 'heavy commitment' is the noun and executives needs the possessive.

The real problem with D is the antecedent shift with "them". The first "them" refers back to executives but the second "them" refers to signs. You can't shift antecedents with pronouns in the same sentence.

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2014, 09:05
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marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.


E-gmat gave a great explanation of the problem and I am posting in here.



This is a very good advanced level question. It tests your understanding of modifiers and pronouns. It also tests your understanding of the intended meaning of the sentence.

Since most of you were able to eliminate choices A and D, I will concentrate on Choices B, C, and E.

Lets begin the solution:
Step 1 - Read the original sentence and understand the meaning.

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worried well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

(Note that even though you were all able to eliminate choice A, we still need to review this choice to understand the meaning that the correct choice is intended to communicate).

1. Sentence talks about an executive who is heavily committed to a course of action
2. This course of action has worked well in the past
3. Because of this heavy commitment, the executive is likely to miss the signs of trouble when they appear.
Step 2 - We will understand the errors in this sentence:

Pronoun Error - ..makes it likely to…- “IT” has no clear antecedent. The sentence must specify clearly that executive is likely to miss the signs…
Thus, choice A is eliminated

Step 3 - Process of Elimination or Choice Analysis

Choice B
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Here is what this sentence communicates:
1. Executive is heavily committed to a course of action - Same as Intended Meaning
2. Executive makes missing signs of trouble likely - Different from Intended Meaning
Thus, choice B states that executives makes the missing of signs likely, whereas, the intended meaning is that the heavy commitment to the course of action makes missing signs likely.

Choice C

An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
This choice does not distort the original meaning of the sentence. However, from this sentence it is not clear as to what has worked well in the past. Thus, this sentence has pronoun reference error for “it”

Choice E

Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
This choice maintains the intended meaning:
1. Action of being heavily committed to a course of action causes the effect.
2. The effect is that the executive misses signs of trouble
Note here that the phrase “being heavily committed to a course of action” is the subject for the verb “is”.

Let me know if this makes sense to you.

Also, I would like to say that please do not reject a choice just because it has the word “being”. You must do a careful analysis of each choice and pick the choice that communicates the intended meaning without any grammatical errors.

For e-GMAT Users, all Sentence Correction questions are solved using a step by step process. These solutions can be found in the 9 Application Files and UGE. (Total of 150+ questions)
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New post 02 May 2015, 00:24
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A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Unclear whether 'It' refers to Commitment or Action
Also doesn't mention who is likely to miss signs.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
Ambiguous & change of menaing conveyed by original sentence

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
Unclear whether 'It' refers to Trouble or Action

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
Incorrect construction

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Is the correct answer choice!!
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2015, 06:02
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.


In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.
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New post 21 Nov 2015, 08:37
sach24x7 wrote:

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.


On the GMAT these days you may seen problems that have ambiguous antecedents (i.e. multiple potential antecedents). What the GMAT does consistently point to as an error is when the antecedent shifts within the sentence.

Example: I lost my bike this morning but I later found it, but it made me late for work.
Here the first "it" relates to my bike, but the second "it" is a generalization for losing my bike, not the bike itself. That shifting is incorrect on the GMAT.

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New post 20 Apr 2016, 13:31
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?


KyleWiddison wrote:
sach24x7 wrote:

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.


On the GMAT these days you may seen problems that have ambiguous antecedents (i.e. multiple potential antecedents). What the GMAT does consistently point to as an error is when the antecedent shifts within the sentence.

Example: I lost my bike this morning but I later found it, but it made me late for work.
Here the first "it" relates to my bike, but the second "it" is a generalization for losing my bike, not the bike itself. That shifting is incorrect on the GMAT.

KW

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2016, 06:50
DAakash7 wrote:
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?


KyleWiddison wrote:
sach24x7 wrote:

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.


On the GMAT these days you may seen problems that have ambiguous antecedents (i.e. multiple potential antecedents). What the GMAT does consistently point to as an error is when the antecedent shifts within the sentence.

Example: I lost my bike this morning but I later found it, but it made me late for work.
Here the first "it" relates to my bike, but the second "it" is a generalization for losing my bike, not the bike itself. That shifting is incorrect on the GMAT.

KW


Following is my response to your question 2:

The phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" functions somewhat similar to that of direct object of a verb (in this case the verb "make") rather than that of an adverb modifying the verb. "An executive" is the indirect object for the verb.

Compare with the following example:

The people made him president.

him = indirect object
president = direct object.

Could you please elaborate further on your query 1 ? The pronoun "it" can refer to "trouble", but not "signs of trouble", since the latter is plural.
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New post 21 Apr 2016, 07:15
Thanks for asnwering my queries Sayantan; however, I have a follow-up question -

1- Clarification of the first query -
Can a Pronoun refer to a Noun that is a part of a prepositional phrase that acts as an Adjective?

Official example -
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Choice C -
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

Official explanation of answer choice C - "The reference of preposition 'it' is unclear because many nouns have intervened between the appearance of the logical referent(course of action) and 'it' ".


My Doubt - How "it" can refer to "trouble" because "trouble" is a part of a prepositional phrase whose "head" is "signs". And, if "it" can not refer to "trouble", then there is no ambiguity. Why official explanation describes this usage as ambiguous?


2- The direct object of a verb is mostly a Noun phrase, but the phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" doesn't seem a Noun phrase to me. Could you please help me understand this usage.



sayantanc2k wrote:
DAakash7 wrote:
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?


Following is my response to your question 2:

The phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" functions somewhat similar to that of direct object of a verb (in this case the verb "make") rather than that of an adverb modifying the verb. "An executive" is the indirect object for the verb.

Compare with the following example:

The people made him president.

him = indirect object
president = direct object.

Could you please elaborate further on your query 1 ? The pronoun "it" can refer to "trouble", but not "signs of trouble", since the latter is plural.

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New post 21 Apr 2016, 11:26
Query 1:
There isn't probably any official rule that an object of preposition cannot be referred to by a pronoun. Rather I would cite an example in the contrary:

I was sitting on the top of the table before it broke.

I do not see any problem with the above example in which the pronoun ( blue font) refers to a noun within a prepositional phrase.

(From the official explanation, it can be concluded that GMAT allows the use of pronoun to refer to a noun within a prepositional phrase.)

Query 2:
In option E, "miss" is a verbal and the closest verbal that I can think of is an infinitive. In my opinion this phrase "miss signs of incipient trouble" comes closest to a nominal infinitive phrase used as an object.


DAakash7 wrote:
Thanks for asnwering my queries Sayantan; however, I have a follow-up question -

1- Clarification of the first query -
Can a Pronoun refer to a Noun that is a part of a prepositional phrase that acts as an Adjective?

Official example -
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Choice C -
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

Official explanation of answer choice C - "The reference of preposition 'it' is unclear because many nouns have intervened between the appearance of the logical referent(course of action) and 'it' ".


My Doubt - How "it" can refer to "trouble" because "trouble" is a part of a prepositional phrase whose "head" is "signs". And, if "it" can not refer to "trouble", then there is no ambiguity. Why official explanation describes this usage as ambiguous?


2- The direct object of a verb is mostly a Noun phrase, but the phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" doesn't seem a Noun phrase to me. Could you please help me understand this usage.



sayantanc2k wrote:
DAakash7 wrote:
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?


Following is my response to your question 2:

The phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" functions somewhat similar to that of direct object of a verb (in this case the verb "make") rather than that of an adverb modifying the verb. "An executive" is the indirect object for the verb.

Compare with the following example:

The people made him president.

him = indirect object
president = direct object.

Could you please elaborate further on your query 1 ? The pronoun "it" can refer to "trouble", but not "signs of trouble", since the latter is plural.
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New post 12 May 2016, 11:54
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.
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New post 13 May 2016, 10:43
anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.


If there are more than one possible antecedents for a pronoun, the sentence would be generally* considered wrong - even when one of the antecedents does not make a logical sense in real life but is grammatically correct in the sentence.

[*However there is an exception to this - When the pronoun is a subject of a clause in the sentence and one of the antecedents is also a subject of a clause, then the subject pronoun would refer to the subject antecedent by virtue of parallelism. Nonetheless, this example is not such a case.]
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New post 13 May 2016, 11:54
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anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.


Hi Anuj,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

The reason why the pronoun it appears to be ambiguous in Choice C is that apart from course of action, trouble is another singular pronoun in the sentence even though it is not the logical antecedent of it.

However, this is not the error that makes choice C incorrect. Choice C is incorrect because the modifier especially if it has worked well in the past must be placed next to the a course of action.

Hope this helps. :-)
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New post Updated on: 02 Aug 2016, 22:36
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

OG16 SC110


Ohhh GMAT you beauty, what a devious femme fatale you are !!!
This is what happens when all these shortcut experts tells you to remember that "being" is always incorrect in GMAT. These are the same shortcut experts that also tell when confused you should avoid "due to" and go for "because of".
Many a times - due to is absolutely correct and many a times {as in this case} "being" is absolutely correct on gmat .

THE CORRECT ANSWER IS E which is using the correct placement of modifiers, the correct tenses and conveys the correct meaning.
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New post 04 Nov 2016, 02:29
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.


In A, after come we have 'makes it likely..... 'it' refers to 'heavy commitment'.....'heavy commitment' can not miss sign.....Subject-verb mismatch.... out
In B, after comma we have 'makes missing signs.....'An executive' 'makes missing signs'.........A person misses signs not makes missing signs.......out
In D, after comma we have 'makes them likely......'Executives' being heavily committed' the subject is 'being heavily committed' (for example: 'Ram's umbrella', the subject is 'umbrella')
'them' cannot refer to 'being heavily committed'....out

In C, An executive...............is likely..............do appear, (so far good)
but, in the next part, what does 'it' refers to?
'it' does not refers to any of the nouns. Out

So, E is correct

'Being' is considered highly avoidable, but when ' being' is an integral part of noun phrase, it is good.

In A, 'it' refers to
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2017, 09:45
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.


A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear---- 1. if it …. it may refer to heavy commitment or the course 2. makes it … it refers perhaps to commitment or course or action -- no clear referent for 'it'.


B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. --- unparallel around the fanboy 'or'

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. --- if it has …it may refer to course or action or trouble. No clarity.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. -- 1. no clear referent for 'it' as usual 2. makes them-- 'them' refers to executives but there is no 'executives', only 'executives' is there 3. 'misinterpreting is unparallel with 'miss'. misinterpreting "them" -- them refers to signs - error of one pronoun referring to two different nouns in one clause.


E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. ----- Correct choice. Being as part of a substantive noun is acceptable. 'them' refers to signs.

A nice question on pronoun reference; also brings out a rare instance in which 'being' is accepted as a correct expression in GMAT

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2017, 10:31
I go with E.

Strangely enough, I always make a note of "being", and more often than not, I find A/C that contain that word are wrong. However, this is why I selected "E" here:

E. [Being heavily committed to a course of action = modifier], [especially one that has worked well in the past = modifier], is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
- Note: the EXECUTIVE is clearly either (a) missing signs of something; or (b) misinterpreting something. Both are in the same tense, and obviously linked to the Executive.

I was only considering "B" or "C" in addition to "E"

B: An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
-- Does the course of action make missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely OR is it the executive who does these verbs?

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
-- "it" is singular but the A/C is talking about two things: either "miss signs of incipient trouble" or "misinterpret signs of incipient trouble"
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if   [#permalink] 12 May 2017, 10:31

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