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In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2005, 07:19
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In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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06 Nov 2005, 09:03
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It is A.
E has wrong verb "was" for subject "that", which refers to laws.
B also has same problem as E has.
C/D are run-on.
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07 Nov 2005, 06:35
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yup I got A as well.
onlyA useses the modifiers correctly.
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07 Nov 2005, 12:01
OA is A.

Parallel structure (first made.. and now included ) is respected.

It can not be E, because that appears to refer to laws rather than one, but the verb is singular. is violates parallelism
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Re: SC - Modifier Question from OG [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2007, 23:06
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helpmeongmat wrote:
In 1995, Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearing that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

I got this from the OG (D40 on page 96). Please provide reasons why others should be ruled out. Thanks!

C - 'namely', it was ... - awkward construction
D - ,it is .. creating 'run-on' sentense
E - that restricts the laws and wrongly used here

A, B - left

B - wordy
A - best
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28 Jun 2007, 10:54
narrowed to A&D
A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

'it is' - unnecessary

hence, A.
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30 Jun 2007, 11:34
down to A and E. it must be A.

C- ---- "it was" redundant.
B/D---- "IT" doesn't have clear referent.
E----wordy---"That was"-unnecessary
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30 Jun 2007, 12:39
goalsnr wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Yes A it is..

B and D are out coz of pronoun reference error 'it is'
C and E are wordy.
A is consice, clear and to the mark..
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30 Jun 2007, 14:25
goalsnr wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

E for me.

Only A and E are close to be the right answer but E wins 'cause '

1st: < '........first made in 1845, and is now included in virtually.....' >in E is definitely better than

<'........first made in 1845, and now included in virtually.....' in A
>
2nd: 'that was an observation' gives more clarity to the sentence.
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30 Jun 2007, 17:44
Quote:
E for me.

Only A and E are close to be the right answer but E wins 'cause '

I would eliminate E because it says "Kirchiff's law [...] 'was' an observation about electric current"

It still is a law...
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Re: SC:In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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22 May 2010, 07:45
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B/w A and E. I will go with A.

Removing the middle man:
In 1995 Richard Stallman testified in Patent Office hearings that a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
The restrictive WHICH is not matched with LAWS. in addition, was an observation indicates that this observation was in past and no longer exists. I think it is still a law . No referrent for IT in the end. Incorrect.

(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
Similar to B. namely, it was an is wordy. Incorrect.

(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
No referrent for IT. Incorrect.

(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is
Similar to B. No clear sunject for IS - The patent or one of the LAWS (Plural). Incorrect.
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Re: SC:In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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24 May 2010, 07:30
I would pick (A).

usage of 'was' in B, C and E is incorrect.
'it' has no reference in D and the option is very awkward

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is
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Re: SC:In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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25 May 2010, 11:28
ykaiim wrote:
B/w A and E. I will go with A.

Removing the middle man:
In 1995 Richard Stallman testified in Patent Office hearings that a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
The restrictive WHICH is not matched with LAWS. in addition, was an observation indicates that this observation was in past and no longer exists. I think it is still a law . No referrent for IT in the end. Incorrect.

(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
Similar to B. namely, it was an is wordy. Incorrect.

(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
No referrent for IT. Incorrect.

(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is
Similar to B. No clear sunject for IS - The patent or one of the LAWS (Plural). Incorrect.

My take on 'D' a patent needs verb 'is' . 'it' refers to patent which is included in every text book. option 'E' incorrectly uses that.
Wats OA??
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Re: SC:In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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25 May 2010, 11:29
ykaiim wrote:
B/w A and E. I will go with A.

Removing the middle man:
In 1995 Richard Stallman testified in Patent Office hearings that a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
The restrictive WHICH is not matched with LAWS. in addition, was an observation indicates that this observation was in past and no longer exists. I think it is still a law . No referrent for IT in the end. Incorrect.

(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
Similar to B. namely, it was an is wordy. Incorrect.

(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
No referrent for IT. Incorrect.

(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is
Similar to B. No clear sunject for IS - The patent or one of the LAWS (Plural). Incorrect.

My take on 'D' a patent needs verb 'is' . 'it' refers to patent which is included in every text book. option 'E' incorrectly uses that.
Wats OA??
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Re: SC:In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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27 May 2010, 12:58
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OA is 'A'.

Just to add to the discussions:
IMO

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
--> Pronoun reference problem. 'It' can refer to electric current/laws/observation
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and --> nonsense
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is --> Similar to (b). Pronoun reference issue.
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is --> Modifier Problem. Sounds like current was made in 1865

Thanks
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in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2010, 16:07
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in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had
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Re: OG-12 Diagnostic - Tough SC - Q40 [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2010, 17:40
A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
namely didnot seem to connect with one of the kirchoff's laws so ruled this one out
D laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
it is now included doesn't seem to reference one of the laws. Ruled this one as the remaining sentence mean that the law is included in text books
E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is
1845 seem to change reference to what it is pointing

Between A and B I selected B. But wrong. Can someone explain why which and 'it is' are wrong
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Re: OG-12 Diagnostic - Tough SC - Q40 [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2010, 04:13
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B states that laws which was an observation; laws is plural and was is singular . Secondly, the pronoun it has no antecedent. Does it refer to the observation or one of the laws or the patent or what? Therefore B is ruled out
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Re: OG-12 Diagnostic - Tough SC - Q40 [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2010, 05:29
I guess which was is correct as we are not talking of laws but we are talking of one of the laws. I kinda agree with it having no antecedent
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2012, 11:11
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In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

can someone help me understand how "Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics " is not like a sentence fragment.
I thought something like
"Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and IS NOW included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics "

---- would make more sense cause now we are adding a verb ... what am i missing here . can some1 shed some light here,
Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent   [#permalink] 18 Sep 2012, 11:11

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