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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,

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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.


(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 190: Sentence Correction


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Spoiler: :: article

Originally posted by rohansherry on 20 Aug 2009, 12:11.
Last edited by Bunuel on 16 Oct 2018, 22:15, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2010, 12:48
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Hey All,

What an annoying question! I was asked to take this on by private message, and I see why it's bothered so many of you. Let's discuss

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics
and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

The thing to remember about PARALLELISM (which is the issue here) is that it is ALL about the parallel markers. You're more concerned with the single word that comes after the parallel marker. From there, things get iffy. The parallel marker here is AND, and the word after it is PARTLY. That's your parallelism. You gotta have another "partly".

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and the "should". This isn't about what "should" happen. The breeders do it SO THAT the steer will acquire certain characteristics.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and an odd idiom. You don't do something "for the acquisition" of something else, but "in order to acquire" something else.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
PROBLEM: They don't do it "because of their steers acquiring..." that sounds like they crossbreed AFTER the steers have acquired the characteristics. But they do it IN ORDER that the steers might acquire the characteristics.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
PROBLEM: I know we all want this one because it says "partly because" and doesn't sound as bad as C, but the "should" is still a meaning issue. There's no question of SHOULD here. The issue is meaning. The breeders crossbreed because they WANT something to happen.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
ANSWER: Yes, I know it isn't as parallel as we'd like. It would be nice to say "partly to X" and "partly to Y" OR "partly because of X" and "partly because of Y". But we don't get that option. This is still parallel enough (with the two "partly"s), and from there it's all about meaning.

Tough one! Hope that helps.

-tommy
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2010, 08:43
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Quote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics
and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers


This is a tricky question. Most people would fall for answer choice (D), but it's really (E). Let me show you how I think through this question:
Step 1: Notice "in part" is underlined and there are variations in the answer choices. So is it "in part" or "partly"?---well let's look continue looking at the rest of the sentence and you'll see the keyword "and" and then the word "partly" next to it.

Step 2: Notice "partly" is not underlined--which means this is cannot be changed. So, what needs to be changed is "in part." Therefore, you can eliminate answer choices (A) and (B) since they both use "in part."

Step 3: Now that you know it's either (C), (D), or (E) because of STRUCTURAL reasons, let's take a look at the MEANING of the sentence.
Ask yourself what are the two reasons the author is trying to communicate?
You're talking about cross breeding. Why are people doing more cross breeding?

Step 4: Well, you know "partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor."

Here the reason is that crossbreeding is said "to provide hybrid vigor."
So your second reason must be consistent with that!

Step 5: With (C), I see "partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics"--which is not consistent with the second half of the sentence.

Step 6: With (D), I see "partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers" which does not have words in the form of "to + verb"

Step 7: But with (E), I see "partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers"--which is consistent with "to provide hybrid vigor."

Remember to look at the MEANING of the two reasons you are talking about. Don't simply see the word "partly because" and automatically assume the answer must be (D)!!

Hope that helps.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2010, 06:15
rohansherry wrote:
204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics
and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers


E........................ agree with the meaning but it is not parallel at all

cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding (for 2 reasons)...partly to acquire certain characteristics and partly to provide hybrid vigor.
E does it nicely, parallel, and retains the original meaning.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2010, 16:37
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Hey GMATBull,

See my explanation on this. Your explanation is not correct. It would be nice if answer choice E gave us the parallel of "partly to acquire" and "partly to provide", but that isn't how parallel works. The fact that both parallel elements (the stuff after "partly") happens to have a form of the infinitive somewhere ("to acquire" and "to provide") is sheer coincidence. The part that we would typically want to be parallel should come right after the marker. For the parallel you want to be important to exist, it would need to say "partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers and partly to provide vigor." The "because crossbreeding is said" ruins the parallel you're thinking about, because the "to" that comes before provide is actually part of the idiom "said to", entirely different from the "to" we get after "partly". Hope that makes sense!

-tommy

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2013, 20:23
2
nikhil.jones.s wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
B) in part for the acquisition of certain characterisitcs in their steers
C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain charcteristics
D) partly because certain characterisitcs should be acquired by their steers
E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Although I know D is wordy but shouldn't we be giving utmost importance to the Idiomatic Correction - partly because... and partly because ?



We can eliminate A and B as they contain the incorrect idiom 'in part".

In C,D and E

'their' in C is ambiguous.

We can eliminate D because of the passive construction.
E is correct as it has 'to acquire' is parallel with 'to provide'
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 06:24
dasa2013 wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Spoiler: :: Error Analysis:
Error Analysis:

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,

in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
and
partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

There sentence has parallel construction error , non underline portion after and starts with partly , so the underline portion also start with partly.
and in this case connect 2 clause in the sentence.


A- As discussed above
B- same parallel issue
C- change the meaning acquiring now tries to modify steers and purpose is lost here
D- should be change the meaning
E- Seems correct but the issue here is first half of the and is not clause. "partly to acquire certain characteristics in their
steers" where second part is "partly because crossbreeding {subject} is {verb} said to provide hybrid vigor



Hi dasa2013,

Thanks for posting your question here. :-)

You have a doubt that confuses a lot of people who solve this question. You have understood the meaning of the sentence well. There are two reasons why the cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding:

a. to acquire certain characteristics in their steers and
b. to provide hybrid vigor.

However, the second reason is not a sure condition. It is believed that crossbreeding provides hybrid vigor to cattle. Hence, it is not possible that these two reason can be written in perfect identical parallel structures. The word "partly" before both the reasons are enough to make the two reasons parallel.

A thing to note here is that this is a very one of its kind questions and such usages are not very common on GMAT.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 10:15
2
jitendra wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics
and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers


Hello. I saw a lot of debates between D and E. Here is my 2 cents. Hope it helps.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
Wrong.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
Wrong.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
Wrong. Parallelism problem.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
Wrong. D has meaning problem. Logically, cattle breeders use crossbreeding TO acquire good characteristics in their steers. Their current steers, living animals, CAN'T acquire anything.
For example, is your dog able to acquire good characteristics from other dogs. Absolutely NOT, how can a living dog acquire characteristics form other dogs? you can only acquire good characteristics in your dog TO create a new kind of dog that has good characteristics as those of your dog. Thus, D can't be correct.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
Correct.

Hope it helps
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 16:10
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
- "in part" should be "partly" to be // to "partly" after the underline. also, illogical meaning -- "steers" cannot acquire certain characteristics

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
- same as "A". "for the acquisition of" = awkward, unidiomatic.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
- illogical meaning -- "steers" cannot acquire certain characteristics

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
- same as "C"

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
- correct as is

couple of important things: 1) illogical meaning (steers CANNOT acquire certain characteristics); 2) maintain //ism: "partly" (kind of seen as a list)

Kudos please if helpful :)
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2018, 08:17
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I’ve always kind of hated this question. It’s not that it’s illegitimate or anything like that. It’s just a spectacularly annoying question, because fundamental grammar rules aren’t terribly useful for dealing with most of the answer choices. We have to fight with some goofy meaning issues that aren’t very straightforward.

So I’ll approach this particular explanation differently than usual. Instead of launching right into the answer choices, we’ll use a few stripped-down sentences to illustrate the principles at work in this question. So take a look at these puppies first:

    1. Arpit studies hard so that he should get a good GMAT score.
    2. Arpit studies hard because he should get a good GMAT score.
    3. Arpit studies hard because of getting a good GMAT score.
    4. Arpit studies hard in order to get a good GMAT score.
    5. Arpit studies hard to get a good GMAT score.

The first three are all at least a little bit illogical if you think strictly and literally about the meaning of the sentences. “Should” implies some sort of value judgment, and that’s not appropriate here: Arpit studies in order to obtain a good GMAT score, NOT because he “should” get a good GMAT score. For that reason, #1 & #2 are wrong.

Similarly, Arpit doesn't study hard “because of getting a good GMAT score.” If we think about that phrase literally (in sentence #3), the sequencing is wrong, because it suggests that getting a good GMAT score is the cause, and “Arpit studies hard” is the effect. And that makes no sense at all.

But #4 and #5 both make plenty of sense, because they clarify that Arpit studies in order to achieve the goal of a good GMAT score. We probably don’t need the phrase “in order to”, when just “to” would suffice. But either #4 or #5 are fine.

If you feel clear about everything I just wrote, then stop, and retry the original question above. If it still doesn’t work for you, then keep reading…

Quote:
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics

Before we get into the meaning stuff, there’s a nice parallelism error that we can work with: “…in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding…” That’s not pretty.

And perhaps more importantly, the meaning makes no sense here, largely because of the word “should.” (See example #1, above.) So (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers

(B) has the same parallelism error as (A): in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers and partly because crossbreeding…” That’s still not pretty, and it’s enough to eliminate (B).

For whatever it’s worth, I’m also not crazy about the phrase “for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers.” You wouldn’t say “Arpit studies hard for getting a good GMAT score”, right? It makes much more sense to say “Arpit studies hard to get a good GMAT score” – and it would make more sense to say “cattle breeders have used crossbreeding… to acquire characteristics in their steers…”

In any case, the parallelism is enough to eliminate (B), and we definitely have better options below.

Quote:
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics

(C) has exactly the same problem as example #3, above. (C) seems to get the causality confused, because it suggests that the steers acquired certain characteristics first, and because of that, ranchers decided to use crossbreeding. That’s illogical: the steers acquired characteristics because the ranchers used crossbreeding, and not the other way around.

So (C) is gone.

Quote:
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers

(D) has the same problem as examples #1 and #2 above. The use of “should” is just wrong here, because it implies some sort of value judgment: maybe my wife thinks that I “should” be more efficient at changing dirty diapers, or maybe you think that I “should” eat less bhindi masala. (Personally, I think that I “should” eat more bhindi masala, but that’s just my opinion.)

But that makes no sense in this case: ranchers are using crossbreeding in order to accomplish something, not because they “should” accomplish something. For that reason, (D) can be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Here we go, this one looks more like #5 in our examples above. The parallelism is fine now (“partly” and “partly” are parallel), and it’s clear that the ranchers are crossbreeding for the purpose of acquiring characteristics in their steers.

It sounds terrible, in my opinion. (But by now you probably know that your ear is not your friend on GMAT SC, right?) Because (E) is the only answer choice that makes logical sense, it is the correct answer.
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2018, 10:35
GMATNinja wrote:

Quote:
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Here we go, this one looks more like #5 in our examples above. The parallelism is fine now (“partly” and “partly” are parallel), and it’s clear that the ranchers are crossbreeding for the purpose of acquiring characteristics in their steers.
Because (E) is the only answer choice that makes logical sense, it is the correct answer.


Hi GMATNinja

Thanks for the detailed explanation. Yet I still miss the point, how these two parts are parallel.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, (1) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly and (2) partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

First one is a prepositional phrase with infinitive of purpose
"partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly"

AND

Second one is a prepositional phrase with full set of NOUN+VERB
"partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor"

Can I infer a general rule that two parts can be parallel no matter what if they are of the same part of the speech?
E.g. simple adverb AND adverbal phrase/clause, prepositional clause AND prepositional, noun AND noun modified by relative clause etc

Thanks!
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2018, 18:19
2
Hero8888 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:

Quote:
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Here we go, this one looks more like #5 in our examples above. The parallelism is fine now (“partly” and “partly” are parallel), and it’s clear that the ranchers are crossbreeding for the purpose of acquiring characteristics in their steers.
Because (E) is the only answer choice that makes logical sense, it is the correct answer.


Hi GMATNinja

Thanks for the detailed explanation. Yet I still miss the point, how these two parts are parallel.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, (1) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly and (2) partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

First one is a prepositional phrase with infinitive of purpose
"partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly"

AND

Second one is a prepositional phrase with full set of NOUN+VERB
"partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor"

Can I infer a general rule that two parts can be parallel no matter what if they are of the same part of the speech?
E.g. simple adverb AND adverbal phrase/clause, prepositional clause AND prepositional, noun AND noun modified by relative clause etc

Thanks!

Good question! In most instances, thinking about the sentence logically will serve you better than trying to internalize the vast array of constructions that can be linked by conjunctions such as "and."

In this case, "and" connects two phrases that describe why cattle breeders use cross-breeding. Anything that describes why an action is happening is an adverb, since it modifies a verb. So the word "and" links two parallel modifiers (adverbial modifiers, if you enjoy jargon):

    1) partly to acquire characteristics in their steers
    2) partly because cross-breeding provides hybrid vigor

Put another way: you don't want to get thrown off by the fact that these two phrases look different. Instead, you want to see that they're doing the same thing: describing why an action is taking place. So it's perfectly reasonable to say that these elements of the sentence are parallel.

I hope that helps!
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly &nbs [#permalink] 16 Jul 2018, 18:19
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