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Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca

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Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Oct 2019, 03:14
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 74, Date : 09-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central California’s Pajaro Valley focuses on the development of farming communities there from 1890 to 1940. The Issei (first-generation immigrants) were brought into the Pajaro Valley to raise sugar beets. Like Issei laborers in American cities, Japanese men in rural areas sought employment via the “boss” system. The system comprised three elements: immigrant wage laborers; Issei boardinghouses where laborers stayed; and labor contractors, who gathered workers for a particular job and then negotiated a contract between workers and employer. This same system was originally utilized by the Chinese laborers who had preceded the Japanese. A related institution was the “labor club,” which provided job information and negotiated employment contracts and other legal matters, such as the rental of land, for Issei who chose to belong and paid an annual fee to the cooperative for membership.

When the local sugar beet industry collapsed in 1902, the Issei began to lease land from the valley’s strawberry farmers. The Japanese provided the labor and the crop was divided between laborers and landowners. The Issei thus moved quickly from wage-labor employment to sharecropping agreements. A limited amount of economic progress was made as some Issei were able to rent or buy farmland directly, while others joined together to form farming corporations. As the Issei began to operate farms, they began to marry and start families, forming an established Japanese American community. Unfortunately, the Issei’s efforts to attain agricultural independence were hampered by government restrictions, such as the Alien Land Law of 1913. But immigrants could circumvent such exclusionary laws by leasing or purchasing land in their American-born children’s names.

Nakane’s case study of one rural Japanese American community provides valuable information about the lives and experiences of the Issei. It is, however, too particularistic. This limitation derives from Nakane’s methodology—that of oral history—which cannot substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative perspective. Future research might well consider two issues raised by her study: were the Issei of the Pajaro Valley similar to or different from Issei in urban settings, and what variations existed between rural Japanese American communities?

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) defend a controversial hypothesis presented in a history of early Japanese immigrants to California

(B) dismiss a history of an early Japanese settlement in California as narrow and ill constructed

(C) summarize and critique a history of an early Japanese settlement in California

(D) compare a history of one Japanese American community with studies of Japanese settlements throughout California

(E) examine the differences between Japanese and Chinese immigrants to central California in the 1890’s


2. Which of the following best describes a “labor club,” as defined in the passage?

(A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley

(B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning “bosses”

(C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time

(D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers

(E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged


3. Based on information in the passage, which of the following statements concerning the Alien Land Law of 1913 is most accurate?

(A) It excluded American-born citizens of Japanese ancestry from landownership.

(B) It sought to restrict the number of foreign immigrants to California.

(C) It successfully prevented Issei from ever purchasing farmland.

(D) It was applicable to first-generation immigrants but not to their American-born children.

(E) It was passed under pressure from the Pajaro Valley’s strawberry farmers.


4. Several Issei families join together to purchase a strawberry field and the necessary farming equipment. Such a situation best exemplifies which of the following, as it is described in the passage?

(A) A typical sharecropping agreement
(B) A farming corporation
(C) A “labor club”
(D) The “boss” system
(E) Circumvention of the Alien Land Law


5. The passage suggests that which of the following was an indirect consequence of the collapse of the sugar beet industry in the Pajaro Valley?

(A) The Issei formed a permanent, family-based community.

(B) Boardinghouses were built to accommodate the Issei.

(C) The Issei began to lease land in their children’s names.

(D) The Issei adopted a labor contract system similar to that used by Chinese immigrants.

(E) The Issei suffered a massive dislocation caused by unemployment.


6. The author of the passage would most likely agree that which of the following, if it had been included in Nakane’s study, would best remedy the particularistic nature of that study?

(A) A statistical table comparing per capita income of Issei wage laborers and sharecroppers in the Pajaro Valley

(B) A statistical table showing per capita income of Issei in the Pajaro Valley from 1890 to 1940

(C) A statistical table showing rates of farm ownership by Japanese Americans in four central California counties from 1890 to 1940

(D) A discussion of original company documents dealing with the Pajaro Valley sugar beet industry at the turn of the century

(E) Transcripts of interviews conducted with members of the Pajaro Valley Japanese American community who were born in the 1920’s and 1930’s


7. It can be inferred from the passage that, when the Issei began to lease land from the Valley’s strawberry farmers, the Issei most probably did which of the following?

(A) They used profits made from selling the strawberry crop to hire other Issei.

(B) They negotiated such agricultural contracts using the “boss” system.

(C) They paid for the use of the land with a share of the strawberry crop.

(D) They earned higher wages than when they raised sugar beets.

(E) They violated the Alien Land Law.



Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by broall on 22 Oct 2017, 07:14.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Oct 2019, 03:14, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1003).
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 09:00
broall,
Can you explain Q.6 please?
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2017, 20:49
abansal1805 wrote:
broall,
Can you explain Q.6 please?

Hey, look at the last para
Nakane’s case study of one rural Japanese American community provides valuable information about the lives and experiences of the Issei. It is, however, too particularistic. This limitation derives from Nakane’s methodology—that of oral history—which cannot substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative perspective. Future research might well consider two issues raised by her study: were the Issei of the Pajaro Valley similar to or different from Issei in urban settings, and what variations existed between rural Japanese American communities?

As Nakane's case study is focused on a very particular area, the study will be in broader scope if it can cover the lives of !st class Japanese immigration people in urban or in other areas. Option C covers this aspect. As for option e, providing the transcript is rejected as the author already mentions in the passage that this limitation derives from Nakane’s methodology—that of oral history—which cannot substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative perspective.
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 22:12
Here is my shot at Q6 - The passage clearly mentions that the methodology using exclusively the oral history leads to the limited/particularistic nature of the case study. So clearly you need more evidence that is theoretical or comparative. Also keep in mind Kazuko Nakane’s study focuses on the development of farming communities in the Pajaro Valley from 1890 to 1940

Now onto the options :

[*cue western battle music*] ‘Into the valley of the options rode the GMAT-ians'

A - while it does present comparative data, it doesn’t help to show how the development of the community took place since the study does’t talk about per-capita income. Eliminate

B - again per capita income statistics is mentioned, but the study doesn’t focus on the per capita income. Eliminate

C - we know that the study describes how the Japanese Immigrants went from day labourers to land purchasers / farm owners (indirect via the registering farms on children’s names, but still essentially part of the happiness americans). So this kinda drives the point home. Also this data is has the comparision element give its focus on four cities. Keep the option

D - no use of the company documents dealing with the beet industry on the development of the communities

E - this one confused me but here is how I eliminated it : the interviews are with folks born in 1920-1940. We can’t directly assume that the interview talked about the development since 1890 unless stated explicitly in the option. The data is also not comparative

Additionally interview transcripts are a derived version of the oral narratives. But my brain was too busy playing the music so I didn’t pick up on this.

Hence C seemed to be winner of this duel, cause the town ain’t big enough for wrong answers.

PS : I just finished watching a western film, so couldn’t help myself from quoting obvious western movie references. In fact, I was tempted to wear a cowboy hat and smoke a cigar while writing this post but I had neither at home. Bummer.
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2019, 00:41
Which of the following best describes a ???labor club,??? as defined in the passage?
(A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley
(B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning ???bosses???
(C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time
(D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers
(E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged


Can anyone please explain this question with solution
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 22:40
ted089 wrote:
Which of the following best describes a ???labor club,??? as defined in the passage?
(A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley
(B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning ???bosses???
(C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time
(D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers
(E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged


Can anyone please explain this question with solution



The sentence from the para: 'A related institution was the “labor club,”..... for Issei who chose to belong and paid an annual fee to the cooperative for membership'. we know it was a cooperative association plus you have to pay an annual fees. Choice D fits the bill here.
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2019, 05:29
ted089 wrote:
Which of the following best describes a ???labor club,??? as defined in the passage?
(A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley
(B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning ???bosses???
(C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time
(D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers
(E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged


Can anyone please explain this question with solution


Always eliminate the wrong ones instead of finding the correct one.

A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley - The farmers had to choose to belong to the club. They were not compelled to belong. Incorrect
B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning bosses. It is an institution for the Issei. Not for the contractors or bosses. Incorrect
C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time. We have no info to support the claim that it was set up by issei. Incorrect
D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers - Correct.
E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged - Their families are not part of the corp. Incorrect
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2020, 09:09
Hello everyone and happy new year!
Can someone please explain question 5 and why is A the correct answer? Thank you in advance.
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2020, 05:16
etsitsanou wrote:
Hello everyone and happy new year!
Can someone please explain question 5 and why is A the correct answer? Thank you in advance.


so while solving the question, i was confused between A and C.. if you had a similar confusion, we're on the same path..

READ this once again very slowly.. it's the second paragraph -- line 27 onwards

As the Issei began to operate farms, they began to marry and start families, forming an established Japanese American community. Unfortunately, the Issei’s efforts to attain agricultural independence were hampered by government restrictions, such as the Alien Land Law of 1913. But immigrants could circumvent such exclusionary laws by leasing or purchasing land in their American-born children’s names.


5. The passage suggests that which of the following was an indirect consequence of the collapse of the sugar beet industry in the Pajaro Valley?

(A) The Issei formed a permanent, family-based community.
hmm, okay given in the passage that explains what happened after the sugar beet industry collapsed.

(B) Boarding houses were built to accommodate the Issei.
nowhere mentioned in the 2nd paragraph.

(C) The Issei began to lease land in their children’s names.

well, yes, it could be true. it is not mentioned. It may have been likely, but there are no words that tell us exactly this. government allowing is not equal to people doing it.. maybe those people found another possible way, or the government made amendments, later on. We don't know anything that happened after they started forming "American-Japanese community", explicitly mentioned in the last line.

(D) The Issei adopted a labor contract system similar to that used by Chinese immigrants.
as you can confirm, not mentioned in 2nd paragraph

(E) The Issei suffered a massive dislocation caused by unemployment.
not mentioned anywhere in the passage.
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2020, 22:45
1
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) defend a controversial hypothesis presented in a history of early Japanese immigrants to California
Wrong. There is no controversial hypothesis. There are only facts about of history of early Japanese Immigrants.

(B) dismiss a history of an early Japanese settlement in California as narrow and ill constructed
Wrong. The author is not dismissing the history of an early Japanese Immigrants. They are only questioning the nature
and methodology of study.

(C) summarize and critique a history of an early Japanese settlement in California
Right. The author is summarizing the history and then evaluated the history also.

(D) compare a history of one Japanese American community with studies of Japanese settlements throughout California
Wrong. Throughout the passage, the author is only talking about Issei labourers.

(E) examine the differences between Japanese and Chinese immigrants to central California in the 1890’s
Wrong. The author is not talking about the diffrence but of their simillarity in adopting the same
system.

2. Which of the following best describes a “labor club,” as defined in the passage?

(A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley
Wrong. He chose to be with the organization. "for Issei who chose to belong and paid an annual fee"

(B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning “bosses”
Wrong. The association was only for labor contractors and not landowning "bosses"

(C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time
Wrong. This corporation was not started by Issei."Japanese men in rural areas sought employment via the “boss” system"

(D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers
Correct. "who chose to belong and paid an annual fee to the cooperative for membership."

(E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged
Wrong. It was not an social organization. It was a private organization for laborers and the
family did not belong to it.

3. Based on information in the passage, which of the following statements concerning the Alien Land Law of 1913 is most accurate?

(A) It excluded American-born citizens of Japanese ancestry from landownership.
Wrong. The act says land leasing and land purchasing and not only landownership.

(B) It sought to restrict the number of foreign immigrants to California.
Wrong. We cannot infer the political agenda as it is not mentioned.

(C) It successfully prevented Issei from ever purchasing farmland.
Wrong. They started buying and leasing the land on the name of their children.

(D) It was applicable to first-generation immigrants but not to their American-born children.
Right.It was applicable to the immigrants but not their child and that is why they started
purchasing the land on their name.

(E) It was passed under pressure from the Pajaro Valley’s strawberry farmers.
Wrong. It is not stated in the passage.

4. Several Issei families join together to purchase a strawberry field and the necessary farming equipment. Such a situation best exemplifies which of the following, as it is described in the passage?


(A) A typical sharecropping agreement
Wrong. Sharecropping agreement was the the american land owners.

(B) A farming corporation

Right. "while others joined together to form farming corporations"

(C) A “labor club”
Wrong. A labor club was formed to negotiate the wages between land owners and the laborer.

(D) The “boss” system
Wrong. Similar to labor club.

(E) Circumvention of the Alien Land Law
Wrong. Buying farm together was not a situation simillion to Alien Land law but it's after effects.

5. The passage suggests that which of the following was an indirect consequence of the
collapse of the sugar beet industry in the Pajaro Valley?


(A) The Issei formed a permanent, family-based community.
Correct. After the collapse of sugar beet industry, the farmers joined together to buy strawberry
farms and hence settled .

(B) Boardinghouses were built to accommodate the Issei.
Wrong. This was before the collapse of Sugar Beet industry.

(C) The Issei began to lease land in their children’s names.
Wrong. This is right also but it was after effect of them buying strawberry land.

(D) The Issei adopted a labor contract system similar to that used by Chinese immigrants.
Wrong. It hapenned before the the collapse of sugar beet industry.

(E) The Issei suffered a massive dislocation caused by unemployment.
Wrong. Not mentioned in the passage.

6. The author of the passage would most likely agree that which of the following, if it had been included in Nakane’s study, would best remedy the particularistic nature of that study?

(A) A statistical table comparing per capita income of Issei wage laborers and sharecroppers in the Pajaro Valley
Wrong. In the whole of passage they have not talked about the percapita income of Isse Labor.

(B) A statistical table showing per capita income of Issei in the Pajaro Valley from 1890 to 1940
Wrong. In the whole of passage they have not talked about the percapita income of Isse
Labor.

(C) A statistical table showing rates of farm ownership by Japanese Americans in four central California counties from 1890 to 1940
Right. Came to through POE. And the passage talks about farm ownership also.

(D) A discussion of original company documents dealing with the Pajaro Valley sugar beet industry at the turn of the century
Wrong. Out of context.

(E) Transcripts of interviews conducted with members of the Pajaro Valley Japanese American community who were born in the 1920’s and 1930’s
Wrong. All of this hapenned before 1913.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that, when the Issei began to lease land from the
Valley’s strawberry farmers, the Issei most probably did which of the following?


(A) They used profits made from selling the strawberry crop to hire other Issei.
Wrong. No mention of this in the passage.

(B) They negotiated such agricultural contracts using the “boss” system.
Wrong. No mention of this in the passage

(C) They paid for the use of the land with a share of the strawberry crop.
Right. The sharecropping agreement they had with the land owners.

(D) They earned higher wages than when they raised sugar beets.
Wrong. No mention of this in the passage.

(E) They violated the Alien Land Law.
Wrong. They made use of lose threads of the Alien Land law and accepted it.
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Re: Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca   [#permalink] 27 Jan 2020, 22:45

Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immigrants to central Ca

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