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# Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global

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Math Expert
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Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2019, 04:03
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

59% (01:36) correct 41% (01:40) wrong based on 3009 sessions

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Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

(A) even though it is certainly
(B) which, while it is certainly
(C) despite that that market is certainly
(D) which, though certainly
(E) although, certainly as

SC24321.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION

https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB120719450406685715

In the fall of 1995, I set out to become a global investor, convinced that limiting my investments to the U.S. stock market — though certainly home to some truly great corporations — restricted my ability to profit from the growth of companies building the products, selling the goods and providing the services responsible for the economies expanding beyond America's shores.

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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2019, 04:04
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Bunuel wrote:
Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

A. even though it is certainly
B. which, while it is certainly
C. despite that that market is certainly
D. which, though certainly
E. although, certainly as

SC24321.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world's great corporations, restricted their gains.

the underlined portion is a DEPENDENT clause and should be talking of the US stock markets.
Secondly, we are talking of not limiting to US markets and then talk of some positive aspect of US market. So a bit of contrast required. Even though and although are correct

(A) even though it is certainly
Even though is correctly used - Even though+subject+verb. The dependent clause is properly framed, and the pronoun IT correctly refers back to singular MARKET.
Correct

(B) which, while it is certainly
the construction is not proper. Which is a relative clause but is not proper here.
The COMMA after which makes it a run on sentence.

(C) despite that that market is certainly
the usage of despite is not correct.
Firstly despite should generally be followed by a pronoun or noun.
The meaning conveyed is illogical. What we meant is that even though the US markets are home to best of companies, the traders are looking towards other markets too. The message conveyed now is ' despite 'the traders moving to other markets ', the us markets are home to ...

(D) which, though certainly
Same as B

(E) although, certainly as
Comma after although is wrong. AS is not correct

A
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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03 May 2019, 05:05
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Bunuel wrote:
Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

A. even though it is certainly
B. which, while it is certainly
C. despite that that market is certainly
D. which, though certainly
E. although, certainly as

SC24321.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION

A. No error.
B. Which refers to the U.S. stock market, but it is not the market that restricted their gains. It is limiting their investments to this market that restricted their gains.
C. Wordy structure.
D. The same error in B.
E. Sentence structure error. No main verb after although.
##### General Discussion
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2019, 04:05
1
Hi

Can anybody please elaborate on the role of the " convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market"
what is it modifying and how after " that" we have clause
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Posts: 8792
Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2019, 04:05
2
Bunuel wrote:
Hi

Can anybody please elaborate on the role of the " convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market"
what is it modifying and how after " that" we have clause

Hi..
'convinced...' is modifying the subject of the previous clause, that is MANY stock traders..

The layout of the question is ....
IC, modifier.
Now this modifier has a dependent clause - even though...
So..
(IC)Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, (Modifier)convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world's great corporations,restricted their gains.
And the struck portion is the Dependent clause.
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 10 May 2019, 14:16
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow it down to the correct answer quickly! To begin, let's take a quick scan over the options, highlighting any major differences between the options in orange:

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

A. even though it is certainly
B. which, while it is certainly
C. despite that that market is certainly
D. which, though certainly
E. although, certainly as

After a quick scan over the options and the original sentence, it looks like we're dealing with MODIFIERS. The best way to tackle modifiers is to plug each option into the sentence and check for a few things:

1. Are the modifiers clearly referring to the right antecedents?
2. Are there any unclear or vague pronouns?
3. Does the sentence still work with the modifier taken out?

Let's take a look at each option with the underlined portion plugged in and eliminate any that don't work:

A. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

This is CORRECT! There aren't any issues with how this modifier is worded, and it's clear that the pronoun "it" is referring to the United States stock market.

B. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, which, while it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

If we read what's left over, it doesn't really work. Parenthetical statements - statements wedged between commas - are considered non-essential clauses, which means they can be removed from the sentence without changing meaning or creating grammatical errors. If we take out the modifier here and leave the "which," it sounds like the clause was cut off mid-thought. Therefore, we can eliminate this option because the word "which" chops in half the modifier "convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market restricted their gains."

C. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, despite that that market is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

This is INCORRECT because the construction is confusing and overly wordy. The modifier and the phrase after it ("restricted their gains") both sound like verb phrases, which is confusing. It should be clear to readers that "limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market" is how they restricted their gains, NOT that the market has some of the world's biggest corporations. The way this is worded makes it hard to follow what the writer is trying to say.

D. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, which, though certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

This option has the same problem as option B - it chops up the modifier into two parts, instead of leaving it as one statement when you remove the parenthetical phrase.

E. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, although, certainly as home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

Again, this option splits the modifier into two parts, which doesn't work.

There you have it - option A was the correct choice all along! It's the only one that uses clear wording and correct modifiers to convey meaning.

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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 03 May 2019, 13:55.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 10 May 2019, 14:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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03 May 2019, 23:56
1
that-clause never follow a preposition . this is hard and fast rule.
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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07 May 2019, 07:19
"By adding the "which" in there, the modifier "while it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world's great corporations" is now linked to the phrase "restricted their gains," which isn't what we want. "

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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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07 May 2019, 10:56
rocking1994abhi wrote:
"By adding the "which" in there, the modifier "while it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world's great corporations" is now linked to the phrase "restricted their gains," which isn't what we want. "

EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Hello rocking1994abhi!

Thanks for the question! This is an incredibly tough question to deal with because the modifiers are long-winded and confusing.

Another way to look at options B, D, & E is to remove the parenthetical statement and see what we're left with:

B. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, which, while it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

If we read what's left over, it doesn't really work. Parenthetical statements - statements wedged between commas - are considered non-essential clauses, which means they can be removed from the sentence without changing meaning or creating grammatical errors. If we take out the modifier here and leave the "which," it sounds like the clause was cut off mid-thought. Therefore, we can eliminate this option because the word "which" chops in half the modifier "convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market restricted their gains."

D. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, which, though certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

This option has the same problem - it chops up the modifier into two parts, instead of leaving it as one statement when you remove the parenthetical phrase.

E. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, although, certainly as home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

Again, this option splits the modifier into two parts, which doesn't work.

If we look at the correct option, we see that if we remove the parenthetical statement, it will still work:

A. Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

I hope that clears things up! There are a few different ways you can attack this question, depending on what grammar issues you're more comfortable dealing with. I will go back and add this into my explanation so it can also help others!
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2019, 11:48
EMPOWERgmatVerbal
Hi Expert,
I could not understand the modifier 'convinced' is modifying to which noun in the sentence? If it is modifying to 'stock traders ,isn't it placed too far to modify the entity.

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

Thank you.
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2019, 01:43
I do not understand the grammatical role of "convinced that limiting...." . is this phrase an adverb of the main clause " traders have set out ...". ?
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2019, 12:29
1
chetan2u wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

A. even though it is certainly
B. which, while it is certainly
C. despite that that market is certainly
D. which, though certainly
E. although, certainly as

SC24321.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world's great corporations, restricted their gains.

the underlined portion is a DEPENDENT clause and should be talking of the US stock markets.
Secondly, we are talking of not limiting to US markets and then talk of some positive aspect of US market. So a bit of contrast required. Even though and although are correct

(A) even though it is certainly
Even though is correctly used - Even though+subject+verb. The dependent clause is properly framed, and the pronoun IT correctly refers back to singular MARKET.
Correct

(B) which, while it is certainly
the construction is not proper. Which is a relative clause but is not proper here.
The COMMA after which makes it a run on sentence.

(C) despite that that market is certainly
the usage of despite is not correct.
Firstly despite should generally be followed by a pronoun or noun.
The meaning conveyed is illogical. What we meant is that even though the US markets are home to best of companies, the traders are looking towards other markets too. The message conveyed now is ' despite 'the traders moving to other markets ', the us markets are home to ...

(D) which, though certainly
Same as B

(E) although, certainly as
Comma after although is wrong. AS is not correct

A

Hi

More about C. If we insert C in the original, we get:

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, despite that that market is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

You claim that "The message conveyed now is ' despite 'the traders moving to other markets ', the us markets are home to ... ". However, I personally don't see it that way. If you read the above. For me, it says something along the lines that "despite that that market [ US stock market ] is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, traders feel that they limit their investments". Could you please provide a comment on my interpretation? Do I not understand/miss something here? Also, does "DESPITE" take "THAT"? I've seen it go with "despite the fact ..."

Thanks
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2019, 11:56
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2019, 09:47
1
certainly

[Word Family: noun: ↑certainty ≠ ↑uncertainty; adverb: ↑certainly ≠ ↑uncertainly; adjective: ↑certain ≠ ↑uncertain]
1. without any doubt SYN definitely:
I certainly never expected to become a writer.
They’re certainly not mine.
it is certainly true/possible etc
It is certainly true that there are more courses on offer.
The girl was almost certainly murdered.
‘Not smoking has made a real difference.’ ‘It most certainly has.’

first I reject A , but in dic we have such pattern....TOUGH QUESTION FOR FIRST TIME
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2020, 00:54
GMATNinja can you please advise the right way to eliminate the incorrect answer choices. I was stuck between A & D.
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2020, 13:21
1
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Ujaswin wrote:
GMATNinja can you please advise the right way to eliminate the incorrect answer choices. I was stuck between A & D.

Hello Ujaswin,

Following is the sentence with Choice D:

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, which, though certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

(Subjects in blue, Verbs in green)

In this choice, there is no verb for the subject which that starts a new clause as restricted is the verb for the subject limiting their investments.

Now let's look at the original sentence:

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

In this version, all the subjects have their corresponding verbs. The sentence clearly presents the intended meaning of the sentence and hence, is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2020, 02:10
egmat wrote:
Ujaswin wrote:
GMATNinja can you please advise the right way to eliminate the incorrect answer choices. I was stuck between A & D.

I too pondered about the issue of the missing Verb in the second part but I was unable to eliminate the possibility of the word restricted acting as a verb.

I guess we can answer this question without delving into the role played by restricted. I feel that this sentence has a very subtle meaning error. The portion that follows which is essential to the meaning as without the essential portion the sentence would imply that the stock market restricted the gains, this implied meeting would be wrong as the way the sentence is structured requires the presence of a slight contrast.

Hello Ujaswin,

Following is the sentence with Choice D:

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, which, though certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

(Subjects in blue, Verbs in green)

In this choice, there is no verb for the subject which that starts a new clause as restricted is the verb for the subject limiting their investments.

Now let's look at the original sentence:

Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

In this version, all the subjects have their corresponding verbs. The sentence clearly presents the intended meaning of the sentence and hence, is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2020, 02:17
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

Bunuel wrote:
Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global investors, convinced that limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market, even though it is certainly home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations, restricted their gains.

(A) even though it is certainly
(B) which, while it is certainly
(C) despite that that market is certainly
(D) which, though certainly
(E) although, certainly as

Choice A: This answer choice maintains proper construction to convey the intended meaning of the sentence and is quite concise. Thus, this answer choice is correct.

Choice B: This answer choice incorrectly modifies the noun "U.S. stock market" with the phrase "which...restricted their gains"; it was not the U.S stock market that supposedly restricted the stock traders' gains, rather it was the action of "limiting their investments to the U.S. stock market" that did so. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice C: This answer choice is technically correct. However, the use of the phrase "that market" to refer to "the U.S stock market" leads to the highly awkward construction "despite that that market". Thus, this answer choice is not a very good one.

Choice D: This answer choice repeats the error found in Option B. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice E: This answer choice places information vital to the sentence between two commas; if the phrase "certainly as home to the stocks of some of the world’s great corporations" is removed from this sentence, the inclusion of the conjunction "although" no longer makes sense as there is no longer any information for it to draw a contrast against.

Hence, A is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Extra Information Between two Commas on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the concept of "Use of Which, Who, Whose, and Where on GMAT" you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the concept of "Although, Though, Despite, and While on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
Experts' Global Team
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Re: Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2020, 11:00
Ujaswin wrote:
I too pondered about the issue of the missing Verb in the second part but I was unable to eliminate the possibility of the word restricted acting as a verb.

I guess we can answer this question without delving into the role played by restricted. I feel that this sentence has a very subtle meaning error. The portion that follows which is essential to the meaning as without the essential portion the sentence would imply that the stock market restricted the gains, this implied meeting would be wrong as the way the sentence is structured requires the presence of a slight contrast.

Hello Ujaswin,

I do not quite agree with your analysis. We must not lose focus of the non-underlined portion of the sentence. We cannot neglect the fact that the word restricted acts as a verb in the sentence that must have a logical subject. That logical subject is limiting their investments. Moreover, SV error is one of the easiest errors to identify in any answer choice. It's a blatant error in the GMAT SC section. We cannot oversee it. If an answer choice has this error, we reject it outrightly without any further analysis.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global  [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2020, 17:47
2
egmat

This is a question regarding the non underlined part of the sentence. This is for my understanding of the concepts.

According to the verb-ed modifier concept explained in your blogs, Verb-ed modifier cannot modify the previous clause and take the subject of the previous clause as its subject. So convinced which is a verb - ed modifier must modify the preceding noun global investors.

But in the above question convinced must actually be modifying the many stock traders which happens to be the subject of the preceding clause.

How is this usage justified ?Please shed some light on this issue
Many stock traders in the United States have set out to become global   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2020, 17:47

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