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QOTD: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight

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07 Nov 2017, 16:25
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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 152: Critical Reasoning

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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.

(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.

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07 Nov 2017, 16:27
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We need to select a conclusion, so let's make sure we're clear about the given information. As always, pay close attention to the author's word choice:

• "Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions." - Such laws might prevent automobile collisions, but they might not.
• "Daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator." - This suggests that headlights would be more useful in improving daylight visibility in countries farther away from the equator. Thus, headlight laws would be "more effective in preventing collisions in those countries."
• "In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States." - The laws are more effective farther away from the equator, and currently this is reflected in the actual data: only countries farther from the equator than the US have such laws.

Does that mean that headlight laws would be ineffective in the US or someplace even closer to the equator? Not necessarily... all we know is that effectiveness INCREASES as the distance from the equator increases. It is possible that headlight laws would be useful even ON the equator. The passage does not tell us how effective headlights are at various distances from the equator.

So which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn based on the given information?

Quote:
(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.

As described above, just because the continental US does not have such laws does NOT mean that headlights would not help. Perhaps drivers in the continental US who use their headlights are slightly LESS likely to become involved in a collision. The information in the passage does not strongly suggest whether (A) is true, so eliminate this one.

Quote:
(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.

We are not given information to compare the effect of poor daylight visibility to other factors that lead to automobile collisions. Daylight visibility might be a relatively minor factor or it might be a major factor. We don't know either way, so eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.

We know that headlight laws CAN prevent collisions, but this does not allow us to compare collision rates in the US to collision rates in countries that have such laws. For example, perhaps Canada has headlight laws but still has a higher proportion of collisions than the US. Without headlight laws, Canada would probably have an even HIGHER proportion of collisions. In other words, headlight laws might reduce the rate of collision in Canada, but we don't know how that reduced rate compares to the rate in the US. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.

Again, headlight laws can REDUCE the risk of collisions, but we don't have enough information to compare the number of collisions in the continental US to the number of collisions in countries with daytime headlight laws. For reasons similar to those discussed for option (C), choice (D) should be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.

We know that the laws are MORE effective the farther away you move from the equator. Since the only countries that currently have such laws are farther from the equator than the continental US, we can infer that the laws would be more effective in those countries than in the continental US.

Choice (E) can be properly inferred and is the best conclusion based on the information in the passage.
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07 Nov 2017, 20:04
Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Type - inference

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights. - Incorrect -- we can't say that use of headlights during daylight hours in the continental US is completely useless

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions. - Incorrect - Single most important factor seems too extreme

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws. Incorrect - we are not given the number of collisions in daytime or night for any country

(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States. - Incorrect - we can't comment on the number of automobile collisions

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws. - Correct

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09 Nov 2017, 04:34
souvik101990 wrote:
Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.
We cannot conclude this information from the above set of statements. The above set of facts are talking about the laws requiring the use of headlights and the applicability of those laws in countries with poor visibility w.r.t. to the other countries which are closer to the equator. INCORRECT.

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.
Though the above bunch of facts are talking about the daylight visibility as a factor responsible for automobile collisions. But solely on the basis of that we cannot conclude that it is the SINGLE MOST important factor. There can be several other factors as well. INCORRECT.

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.
This option is talking about the PROPORTION of something. Let us see what that proportion is all about,

proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime = (Number of collisions that occur in daytime)/(total number of collisions in daytime + night time)

For calculating this proportion we need to know the values of -- Number of collisions that occur in daytime in both the US and the countries farther from the equator; plus we also need to know (total number of collisions in daytime + night time); But from the above set of facts we cannot comment on this proportion as we are lacking all these details. INCORRECT.

(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.
We cannot conclude that. Just because there is no need for the daytime headlight laws in the US does not mean that there can be less accidents in the US. There even can be more accidents due to other factors but we do not have much information to comment on that. INCORRECT.

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.
CORRECT. Infact the best of the lot!! This is exactly what we know from the above set of facts.
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02 Jun 2018, 00:12
Author:-
General Background:- Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions.
Author's viewpoint:- However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. This is an important statement from the point of view of what should be follow up conclusion.
In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States. The author is providing additional evidence that there seems no such requirement for such laws in continental United States

The conclusion must say something about such laws and that it is not required in continental United States

Option E says this perfectly:- Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.
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Re: QOTD: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight &nbs [#permalink] 02 Jun 2018, 00:12
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