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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent

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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?


(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.

(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.



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Question No.: 43
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Originally posted by Darth_McDaddy on 07 Aug 2005, 05:01.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Sep 2018, 04:38, edited 7 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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QOTD: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2017, 15:27
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We need to select a conclusion, so let's make sure we're clear about the given information. As always, pay close attention to the author's word choice:

  • "Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions." - Such laws might prevent automobile collisions, but they might not.
  • "Daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator." - This suggests that headlights would be more useful in improving daylight visibility in countries farther away from the equator. Thus, headlight laws would be "more effective in preventing collisions in those countries."
  • "In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States." - The laws are more effective farther away from the equator, and currently this is reflected in the actual data: only countries farther from the equator than the US have such laws.

Does that mean that headlight laws would be ineffective in the US or someplace even closer to the equator? Not necessarily... all we know is that effectiveness INCREASES as the distance from the equator increases. It is possible that headlight laws would be useful even ON the equator. The passage does not tell us how effective headlights are at various distances from the equator.

So which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn based on the given information?

Quote:
(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.

As described above, just because the continental US does not have such laws does NOT mean that headlights would not help. Perhaps drivers in the continental US who use their headlights are slightly LESS likely to become involved in a collision. The information in the passage does not strongly suggest whether (A) is true, so eliminate this one.

Quote:
(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.

We are not given information to compare the effect of poor daylight visibility to other factors that lead to automobile collisions. Daylight visibility might be a relatively minor factor or it might be a major factor. We don't know either way, so eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.

We know that headlight laws CAN prevent collisions, but this does not allow us to compare collision rates in the US to collision rates in countries that have such laws. For example, perhaps Canada has headlight laws but still has a higher proportion of collisions than the US. Without headlight laws, Canada would probably have an even HIGHER proportion of collisions. In other words, headlight laws might reduce the rate of collision in Canada, but we don't know how that reduced rate compares to the rate in the US. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.

Again, headlight laws can REDUCE the risk of collisions, but we don't have enough information to compare the number of collisions in the continental US to the number of collisions in countries with daytime headlight laws. For reasons similar to those discussed for option (C), choice (D) should be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.

We know that the laws are MORE effective the farther away you move from the equator. Since the only countries that currently have such laws are farther from the equator than the continental US, we can infer that the laws would be more effective in those countries than in the continental US.

Choice (E) can be properly inferred and is the best conclusion based on the information in the passage.
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Re: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2006, 19:33
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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.
---> it doesn't sum up all the premises ---> can't be a conclusion.

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.
---> no point in the passage indicates this ---> out.

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.
-----> US is better than farther countries in term of being closer to the equator; however, US is worse than farther countries in term of not having such laws -----> positive side + negative side ----> the result is not necessarily negative ----> C is not applausible ---> out.

(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.
----> Same to C

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.

-----> Yeah, the reason why US doesn't have such laws is probably because such laws do less to prevent automobile collisions in US than they do in farther countries. ----> applausible. Note that the use of "would probably" makes E least vulnerable to criticism!

Go for E.
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Re: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2005, 11:35
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Choose E.

this law works better in the countries where visibility is poor. countries that are farther from equator have poor visibility thant continental USA.
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Re: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2005, 16:04
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(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.

- this is good. The argument clearly says that USA, the daytime visibility is good and laws will not help that much, but countries that have such laws already in place are away from the equator, so they have more chance of getting involved in an accident without the law.
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Re: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2012, 12:27
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The Argument: the farther away from the equator, the more important it is to use daytime headlights while driving. Indeed, countries north of the U.S. mandate the use of headlights during the day. The U.S. should also require the use of daytime headlights, though such a move would not have as much an impact on lowering collisions the way it does in more northern climes.

Based on the information above, the question is asking what we can most reasonably conclude.

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.

The argument says that the use of daylight headlights lowers the collision rate the more north of the equator you go. Therefore, daylight headlight use in the continental U.S. would help reduce the collision rate.

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.

From the prompt, we do not know anything about which other factors account for collisions in countries north of the U.S. So we can't say that poor visibility is the most important factor.

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.

This one is tempting because you can make the connection that countries up north have to use daytime headlights, so they are less likely to get into accidents during the daytime. But we do not know what the original proportion of either the U.S or northern countries are. So while daytime headlight reduces collision rate, without knowing the original proportion, we cannot say that the U.S. has more daytime collisions.


(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.

We only know that daytime headlight laws reduce the collision rate, an effect more pronounced the more north one goes. However, we do not know the total number of accidents up north. Maybe a hundred thousand accidents occur in northern countries. Maybe only ten thousand.

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.

Those countries that have the laws are the ones that are more north of the United States, and thus the ones farther from the equator. The farther from the equator, the more important the use of daytime headlights. So the use of daytime headlights in the U.S. would be helpful, but probably not so much as in countries north of the U.S. ANSWER
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Re: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 06:49
Laws requiring the use of headlights during the daytime are more effective at preventing car collisions in countries with lower daylight visibility, that is, in countries at greater distances from the equator. The only countries having these laws are those located farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Reasoning What conclusion can be drawn from this information?

Countries with daytime headlight laws are all farther from the equator than is the continental United States. The location is significant because daytime visibility is worse in those countries than it is in the continental United States. How effective at preventing collisions would such laws be
in the continental United States with its greater proximity to the equator?
It is reasonable to conclude that such laws would be less effective at preventing collisions there than they are in the countries farther from the equator.

INCORRECT A - Although daytime headlight use may be less effective in countries with more daylight, it cannot be concluded that U.S. drivers using daytime headlights would gain no benefit from them and would be just as likely to have collisions as those who do not use them.

INCORRECT B - The passage offers no evidence for the conclusion that poor visibility is the greatest cause for collisions in these countries.

INCORRECT C - Many factors besides use of headlights during daylight hours influence accident rates, and these factors may vary widely from one country to another. We are given no information about these other factors or about their relative impact in various countries.

INCORRECT D - Without specific data, no conclusion can be drawn about the relative number of accidents that occur.

CORRECT 'E' - This statement properly identifies a conclusion to be drawn from the given information.

Hope this helps.
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Re: QOTD: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2017, 19:04
Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Type - inference

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights. - Incorrect -- we can't say that use of headlights during daylight hours in the continental US is completely useless

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions. - Incorrect - Single most important factor seems too extreme

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws. Incorrect - we are not given the number of collisions in daytime or night for any country

(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States. - Incorrect - we can't comment on the number of automobile collisions

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws. - Correct

Answer E
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QOTD: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 03:34
souvik101990 wrote:
Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.


Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?

(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.
We cannot conclude this information from the above set of statements. The above set of facts are talking about the laws requiring the use of headlights and the applicability of those laws in countries with poor visibility w.r.t. to the other countries which are closer to the equator. INCORRECT.

(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States, poor daylight visibility is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.
Though the above bunch of facts are talking about the daylight visibility as a factor responsible for automobile collisions. But solely on the basis of that we cannot conclude that it is the SINGLE MOST important factor. There can be several other factors as well. INCORRECT.

(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.
This option is talking about the PROPORTION of something. Let us see what that proportion is all about,

proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime = (Number of collisions that occur in daytime)/(total number of collisions in daytime + night time)

For calculating this proportion we need to know the values of -- Number of collisions that occur in daytime in both the US and the countries farther from the equator; plus we also need to know (total number of collisions in daytime + night time); But from the above set of facts we cannot comment on this proportion as we are lacking all these details. INCORRECT.


(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States.
We cannot conclude that. Just because there is no need for the daytime headlight laws in the US does not mean that there can be less accidents in the US. There even can be more accidents due to other factors but we do not have much information to comment on that. INCORRECT.

(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.
CORRECT. Infact the best of the lot!! This is exactly what we know from the above set of facts.
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Re: QOTD: Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 23:12
Author:-
General Background:- Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions.
Author's viewpoint:- However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. This is an important statement from the point of view of what should be follow up conclusion.
In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States. The author is providing additional evidence that there seems no such requirement for such laws in continental United States

The conclusion must say something about such laws and that it is not required in continental United States

Option E says this perfectly:- Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws.
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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2018, 09:04
If the laws requiring the use of headlights during the daylight hours are more effective in other countries, then they must be less effective in the continental United States. Option E is correct.
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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 21:26
[quote="Darth_McDaddy"]Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obviously be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States.

Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?


(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlights during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.


For people like me who got struck with A and E (like me )

Note :For Inference/MBT questions .The correct option should be true 100% times.

Notice the premise carefully.

any such laws would obviously be more effective
in
preventing collisions in those countries[/color]

This doesn't imply such laws will be ineffective in equator and so this doesnt imply daylight visibility cannot be a problem in equator.
What if its foggy and cloudy all thorough ?? Right.

So option A cannot be MUST BE TRUE..that is not 100% true in all cases.

Now my takeaway from this problem would be to focus carefully on words and reply on POE.

Also,E properly summarizes the prmises and follows from the pasaage.


So my takeaways :



If X is greater than Y doesnt necessarily mean Y is zero
If X is more effective than Y doesnt necessarly mean Y is not effective .


Keep watching for these TRAPS in options.



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Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent &nbs [#permalink] 25 Nov 2018, 21:26
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