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New post Updated on: 12 Oct 2019, 07:35
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The consolidation of industry, which so agitated a large segment of the public during the late 19th and early 20th century, inevitably gave rise to a countermovement – an antimonopoly or antitrust movement. The antitrust movement is easily explained and understood. It stemmed from the basic belief in an open society, a society in which there were to be no rigid or class lines, a society in which a person or a company ought to be able to rise to the extent to which one’s abilities permitted. But the consolidation of the late 19th and early 20th century threatened this open society and free competition itself.

In the 1880’s and 1890’s, in response to these threats, the antitrust movement became a political issue of importance. There was a marked division of thought as to how the so-called trust problem should be handled. One school of thought – advocated by small businessman and farmers particularly – wanted the trusts destroyed. These people believed that trusts stifled competition and equality of opportunity, and therefore should be wiped out. Many of them, it seems, wanted to get back to a simpler society and economy.

During the 1880s and 1890s, there were other people who believed that the process of business consolidation was perfectly natural and completely inevitable. Moreover, some of them argued that large-scale business was nothing to be frightened about, and that it offered the public certain potential advantages – cheaper production; lower prices, etc. These people recognized, however, that big corporations or trusts might not pass on lower prices to the public, and felt that the government should make sure that the potential benefits of size were indeed obtained by the public. This more reasonable view held that the trusts should not be destroyed, as the other school advocated, but rather regulated and controlled by the government in order to guarantee that the public interest was upheld.


1. The author would most likely support government intervention and regulation in which of the following situations:

A) A company creates a new lifesaving cancer drug that, because of patent protection, is extremely expensive and cannot be afforded by most people suffering from the disease.
B) By purchasing its major rival, a company creates a monopoly for its most important product. Consumers no longer have several options for that product, but prices have gone down.
C) Several companies who sell a similar product collude to keep prices down for that product in order to stifle a major international company that has entered the market.
D) A major electronics company has entered into an arrangement with its two main competitors to make all of their products in the same facility, resulting in cheaper production.
E) A petroleum firm has gained control of 90% of oil reserves in the country. Its strong position has allowed the country to greatly reduce domestic gas prices by undercutting international firms.



2.Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage above?

A) To analyze the role of monopolies and trusts in the late 19th and early 20th century.

B) To suggest that one of two alternative hypotheses regarding trusts and monopolies in the late 19th and early was wrong.

C) To describe two alternative viewpoints regarding the regulation of trusts and monopolies in the late 19th and early 20th century.

D) To present a new opinion regarding government regulation and trusts in the late 19th and early 20th century.

E) To suggest that trusts and monopolies damaged the public interest during the late 19th and early 20th century.



3. In regard to the situation in the late 19th and early 20th century, the author would most likely agree with which of the following statements:

A) Large monopolies and the consolidation of business are not in the public interest.
B) Government regulation is usually beneficial to the public interest.
C) Trusts could be beneficial to the public interest.
D) Having a free and open society is essential to the public interest.
E) Trusts should be abolished to benefit the public interest.



4. Which of the following can be properly inferred about the late 19th and early 20th century from the passage above?

A) In U.S. society, people were able to freely move up depending on their abilities.
B) Competition and equality of opportunity were considered important elements of a simple economy and society.
C) Anti-trust issues were debated often in the U.S. Congress.
D) A majority of Americans believed that trusts should be destroyed.
E) Trusts were inherently bad for the U.S. economy.


Originally posted by rkdhardubey on 12 Aug 2018, 11:26.
Last edited by MikeScarn on 12 Oct 2019, 07:35, edited 5 times in total.
Added Q4
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New post 12 Aug 2018, 11:30
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New post 28 Aug 2018, 20:10
its said benefits should be given to public in first option price is high
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New post 01 Sep 2018, 08:26
The 3rd paragraph mentions that the 2nd school of though wants the government to intervene to make the benefits available to general public.

This is in line with what is mentioned in option A.

Option D mentions that the company is having cheaper production, so no intervention from government is required. Because, the product is cheaper general public can buy it.

so A is the answer.
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New post 02 Sep 2018, 12:31
if possible kindly add other questions also
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New post 17 Oct 2018, 08:10
rkdhardubey wrote:
The consolidation of industry, which so agitated a large segment of the public during the late 19th and early 20th century, inevitably gave rise to a countermovement – an antimonopoly or antitrust movement. The antitrust movement is easily explained and understood. It stemmed from the basic belief in an open society, a society in which there were to be no rigid or class lines, a society in which a person or a company ought to be able to rise to the extent to which one’s abilities permitted. But the consolidation of the late 19th and early 20th century threatened this open society and free competition itself.

In the 1880’s and 1890’s, in response to these threats, the antitrust movement became a political issue of importance. There was a marked division of thought as to how the so-called trust problem should be handled. One school of thought – advocated by small businessman and farmers particularly – wanted the trusts destroyed. These people believed that trusts stifled competition and equality of opportunity, and therefore should be wiped out. Many of them, it seems, wanted to get back to a simpler society and economy.

During the 1880s and 1890s, there were other people who believed that the process of business consolidation was perfectly natural and completely inevitable. Moreover, some of them argued that large-scale business was nothing to be frightened about, and that it offered the public certain potential advantages – cheaper production; lower prices, etc. These people recognized, however, that big corporations or trusts might not pass on lower prices to the public, and felt that the government should make sure that the potential benefits of size were indeed obtained by the public. This more reasonable view held that the trusts should not be destroyed, as the other school advocated, but rather regulated and controlled by the government in order to guarantee that the public interest was upheld.
1. The author would most likely support government intervention and regulation in which of the following situations:

A) A company creates a new lifesaving cancer drug that, because of patent protection, is extremely expensive and cannot be afforded by most people suffering from the disease.

B) By purchasing its major rival, a company creates a monopoly for its most important product. Consumers no longer have several options for that product, but prices have gone down.

C) Several companies who sell a similar product collude to keep prices down for that product in order to stifle a major international company that has entered the market.

D) A major electronics company has entered into an arrangement with its two main competitors to make all of their products in the same facility, resulting in cheaper production.

E) A petroleum firm has gained control of 90% of oil reserves in the country. Its strong position has allowed the country to greatly reduce domestic gas prices by undercutting international firms.




I am confused, I think D is a better answer , need expert opinion , why D is wrong?


Hi,

Option D doesn't mention anything about the cost of the product. It just mentions that the production was less expensive.

Hope this helps.
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New post 25 Oct 2018, 06:16
Hi workout
can you add this question to the passage?


Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage above?

a. To analyze the role of monopolies and trusts in the late 19th and early 20th century.

b. To suggest that one of two alternative hypotheses regarding trusts and monopolies in the late 19th and early was wrong.

c. To describe two alternative viewpoints regarding the regulation of trusts and monopolies in the late 19th and early 20th century.

d. To present a new opinion regarding government regulation and trusts in the late 19th and early 20th century.

e. To suggest that trusts and monopolies damaged the public interest during the late 19th and early 20th century.

OA:
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New post 03 Nov 2018, 12:54
1

Passage Map:


1) Consolidation vs antimonopoly
2) Support for antimonopoly
3) Support for consolidation. 3rd view.
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New post 06 Nov 2018, 22:47
These people recognized, however, that big corporations or trusts might not pass on lower prices to the public, and felt that the government should make sure that the potential benefits of size were indeed obtained by the public.

- "to pass on " , a company has to obtain the intended product at lower prices .ie it should be cheap to the company itself and only the can they PASS ON the lower prices... but if the company itself has spent a lot in development of the product , then why would they PASS ON lower prices ??

A) A company creates a new lifesaving cancer drug that, because of patent protection, is extremely expensive and cannot be afforded by most people suffering from the disease. - This may sound promising , but nowhere is it stated that the company produced the product at lower prices to PASS ON the lower prices ... !!! we need an assumption here...

D) A major electronics company has entered into an arrangement with its two main competitors to make all of their products in the same facility, resulting in cheaper production. -- This says that the company produced product at cheap proudction costs ... now there is a possibilty this comapny may not PASS ON the lower prices to consumers ...so govt.th intervention here may be fruitful...but even this AC needs an assumption that the comapny did not actually pass on the lower prices to consumers ,resulting in futile govt. intervention.


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A and D both seem credible ...please explain... if we strictly adhere to the context in the passage , D seems to be a better one
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New post 07 Nov 2018, 15:12
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I'd look at the fact that the question asks about when the author would most likely support intervention *and* regulation.

With D, you don't know either way whether those lower costs are being passed on, so you don't have a 100% case for intervention (if consumers are getting a better deal, then there's no need to intervene). Whereas with A we know that consumers and the "public good" (as referenced in author's most editorial statement in the last sentence) are being violated, so you do have a good case for intervention and regulation.

With A, you do know that the public good is being violated as most people with the disease cannot afford the medication. And the reason is called out as "patent protection" (and the monopoly it affords), not something like an expensive manufacturing process or raw material or something like that. So that is a company using its market power in violation of the public good.
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New post 13 Jun 2019, 08:29
Hi:

How is the mainpoint of the passage "To describe two alternative viewpoints regarding the regulation of trusts and monopolies in the late 19th and early 20th century".

The mainpoint is not togive alternate viewpoints regarding the regulation of trust but rather about existence of trusts.

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please help.

Also passage mentions

. This more reasonable view held that the trusts should not be destroyed, as the other school advocated, but rather regulated and controlled by the government in order to guarantee that the public interest was upheld.

Why cant we conclude option B from here that author thought one of the viewpoints to be more reasonable and other to be wrong?
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New post 17 Jun 2019, 23:23
1. The author would most likely support government intervention and regulation in which of the following situations:[/b]

A) A company creates a new lifesaving cancer drug that, because of patent protection, is extremely expensive and cannot be afforded by most people suffering from the disease.

B) By purchasing its major rival, a company creates a monopoly for its most important product. Consumers no longer have several options for that product, but prices have gone down.

C) Several companies who sell a similar product collude to keep prices down for that product in order to stifle a major international company that has entered the market.

D) A major electronics company has entered into an arrangement with its two main competitors to make all of their products in the same facility, resulting in cheaper production.

E) A petroleum firm has gained control of 90% of oil reserves in the country. Its strong position has allowed the country to greatly reduce domestic gas prices by undercutting international firms.

the passage states that the government must intervene if the big organisation dosn't pass the benefit to the public i.e. production cost decreases but selling price doesnot.
in option A we cannot infer that the organisation is making a profit and not passing it to the public. whereas in D it is mentioned that as size increases production cost decreases, this should benefit the public.
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New post 18 Aug 2019, 14:18
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Bunuel

Here's a new Q for this passage not seen elsewhere:

Q:

In regard to the situation in the late 19th and early 20th century, the author would most likely agree with which of the following statements:

A Large monopolies and the consolidation of business are not in the public interest.
B Government regulation is usually beneficial to the public interest.
C Trusts could be beneficial to the public interest.
D Having a free and open society is essential to the public interest.
E Trusts should be abolished to benefit the public interest.

Answer:
Solution: C

Explanation: In this passage, two alternative viewpoints are described for dealing with the monopoly/trust problem in the late 19th and early 20th century: one is to eliminate trusts altogether, and the other is to keep trusts (because they actually can provide benefits) but regulate them to make sure the public sees those benefits. From the last sentence, “This more reasonable view…” you know that the author agrees more with the latter, and you can conclude that author would agree that “trusts could be beneficial to the public interest”. (A) contradicts this and is incorrect because the author seems to agree that trusts have some role to play as long as they are regulated. (B) is too strong because you only know that the author agrees that government regulation would be beneficial in this case. There is no way to conclude whether the author would agree that “government regulation is USUALLY beneficial”. For (D), while the author mentions a free and open society, you have no idea whether he believes it is ESSENTIAL to the public interest. And (E), like (A), is contradicted in the passage. There is evidence that he believes the opposite. Answer is (C).

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New post 18 Aug 2019, 14:21
Q1
OE:
Solution: B

Explanation: For (A), you should look in the first paragraph. One sentence reads: “It stemmed from our basic belief in an open society, a society in which there were to be no rigid or class lines, a society in which a person or a company ought to be able to rise to the extent to which one’s abilities permitted.” While it is declared that they “ought to be” able to move freely, there is no evidence given about whether people really could move freely in that time period (in fact if anything the opposite is suggested). (A) is incorrect. For (B) you can find concrete evidence in the second paragraph: “These people believed that trusts stifled competition and equality of opportunity, and therefore should be wiped out. Many of them, it seems, wanted to get back to a simpler society and economy.” If trusts stifled competition and equality of opportunity, and in order to get to a simpler society and economy, these people wanted to wipe them out, you can definitely conclude that those two things were considered important elements. For (C), while anti-trust issues were politically important, no evidence is given about how much they were debated. Likewise for (D): you know that some people in America wanted to destroy the trusts, but you have no idea if it was a majority. And for (E), there is no way to conclude whether that is true: all you know is that there were two viewpoints about what to do about trusts.

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New post 18 Aug 2019, 14:31
My confusion with A in question 1 is the fact the whole passage talks about partnerships/ trusts, but then slips in big corporations towards the end: "These people recognized, however, that big corporations or trusts might not pass on lower prices to the public, and felt that the government should make sure that the potential benefits of size were indeed obtained by the public. "


Its clear that A is the only answer choice that talks about Jacking prices up though, so by virtue of the price dynamic we can eliminate B-E.
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New post 18 Aug 2019, 21:14
Thank you! Added question 3

dcummins wrote:
Bunuel

Here's a new Q for this passage not seen elsewhere:

Q:

In regard to the situation in the late 19th and early 20th century, the author would most likely agree with which of the following statements:

A Large monopolies and the consolidation of business are not in the public interest.
B Government regulation is usually beneficial to the public interest.
C Trusts could be beneficial to the public interest.
D Having a free and open society is essential to the public interest.
E Trusts should be abolished to benefit the public interest.

Answer:
Solution: C

Explanation: In this passage, two alternative viewpoints are described for dealing with the monopoly/trust problem in the late 19th and early 20th century: one is to eliminate trusts altogether, and the other is to keep trusts (because they actually can provide benefits) but regulate them to make sure the public sees those benefits. From the last sentence, “This more reasonable view…” you know that the author agrees more with the latter, and you can conclude that author would agree that “trusts could be beneficial to the public interest”. (A) contradicts this and is incorrect because the author seems to agree that trusts have some role to play as long as they are regulated. (B) is too strong because you only know that the author agrees that government regulation would be beneficial in this case. There is no way to conclude whether the author would agree that “government regulation is USUALLY beneficial”. For (D), while the author mentions a free and open society, you have no idea whether he believes it is ESSENTIAL to the public interest. And (E), like (A), is contradicted in the passage. There is evidence that he believes the opposite. Answer is (C).

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New post 18 Aug 2019, 22:21
please explain the difference between question 2 s c or d part . why d is wrong
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 05:55
The whole of the passage discussed two view points, Monopoly and Trusts, and government's rules to handle the issue at hand.

C) To describe two alternative viewpoints regarding the regulation of trusts and monopolies in the late 19th and early 20th century.

D) To present a new opinion regarding government regulation and trusts in the late 19th and early 20th century.

There is no new opinion is discussed rather 2 viewpoints are discussed only. That is why D is wrong

Kanvi wrote:
please explain the difference between question 2 c or d part . why d is wrong

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New post 12 Oct 2019, 07:32
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SajjadAhmad, I am adding an additional question which I received in a CAT.

4. Which of the following can be properly inferred about the late 19th and early 20th century from the passage above?

A) In U.S. society, people were able to freely move up depending on their abilities.
B) Competition and equality of opportunity were considered important elements of a simple economy and society.
C) Anti-trust issues were debated often in the U.S. Congress.
D) A majority of Americans believed that trusts should be destroyed.
E) Trusts were inherently bad for the U.S. economy.
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