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The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of

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The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 11:26
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A
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D
E

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Question Stats:

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Project SC Butler: Day 72 Sentence Correction (SC2)


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The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.


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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2019, 01:39
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The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.


Because whole sentence is underlined we have to carefully examine all answer choices:

(A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

placement of modifier “with galaxies” is incorrect - this is not the intended meaning of the sentence
For more information about with + [noun] + [participle] please see Mister Mike's explanation

Meaning of the sentence: Carl (astronomer) affirmed that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 1000000000000 years ago or so. This expansion then caused some galaxies run away from each other

Attachment:
A.JPG
A.JPG [ 46.48 KiB | Viewed 1723 times ]


B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

Same issue with (A) - modifier placement error. Additionally we have verb tense error, explosion was 1000000000000 years ago, why is?????

Attachment:
B.JPG
B.JPG [ 47.91 KiB | Viewed 1724 times ]


C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

"and" //ism marker, but we don't have anything in the sentence to be // to the galaxies

Attachment:
C.JPG
C.JPG [ 37.78 KiB | Viewed 1722 times ]


D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

Beautiful structure, clean and tidy, all verbs and subjects are in place and agree in number, verb tenses are also fine - past simple. Modifier ",+sending" smoothly describes and gives the result of the expansion process, and modifies preceeding clause. "sending" - represents current action also, becouse expansion happened 1000000000 years ago, but still going on. I'm happy

For more information about V-ing modifier please see e-gmat explanations

Attachment:
D.JPG
D.JPG [ 39.9 KiB | Viewed 1723 times ]


E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

As Sir Charles said, such mess here that I didn't know how to explain it :blushing
There is no verb for "Big Band", even if we consider "causing" as a modifier of "Big Bang, but what about ", + sending", what is modifies here? it's not // to "causing" - no //ism marker. Anyway (E) is out.

Attachment:
E.JPG
E.JPG [ 36.29 KiB | Viewed 1725 times ]


(D) is the answer
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 11:55
A and D both give a cause and effect relationship. I marked D as the correct answer choice as it states that the Big Bag caused the expansion 15 billion years ago and the result- sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. The cause of the expansion is Big Bag that took place 15 billion years ago and the result -sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. So, D is the correct answer choice according to me.

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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 13:25
Imo D

A:wrong usage of word big bag

Only D uses correct word and shows the cause and effect by ing modifier

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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 14:01
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Meaning Analysis:

The sentence conveys that one A caused B and the final result is C.

A is Big Bang; B is expansion; C is galaxies rushing outwards

Error Analysis:

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago. (with galaxies rushing outwards seems like it is modifying expansion of the universe. This is not the case. A caused B, resulted in galaxies rushing outwards..)

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago. (Same as A)

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other. (and suggests that expansion was caused by both Big bang and galaxies rushing outwards. This is not correct)

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing eve outward away from each other. (Aha. Correct as described by meaning analysis)

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. (causing the explosion .... sending the galaxies is not parallel and distorts the intended meaning. Big bang caused the expansion which resulted in galaxies rushing outwards)
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 14:17
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generis wrote:

The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing eve outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

The bold part is the direct result of green part in the sense of meaning. So, D should be the correct choice.
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 14:30
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zubair123 wrote:
E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. (causing the explosion .... sending the galaxies is not parallel and distorts the intended meaning. Big bang caused the expansion which resulted in galaxies rushing outwards)

E is not a sentence at all; it's a sentence fragment!
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 14:39
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NRJ11090 wrote:
A and D both give a cause and effect relationship.

You make me crazy saying the quote! How A is cause and effect situation?
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The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 19:50
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Yash312 wrote:
Imo D

A:wrong usage of word big bag

Only D uses correct word and shows the cause and effect by ing modifier

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Yash312 :lol: :lol:

"Big Bag"? Really? :lol:

Those were typos.

This thread is hilarious.
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The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 19:53
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AsadAbu wrote:
NRJ11090 wrote:
A and D both give a cause and effect relationship.

You make me crazy saying the quote! How A is cause and effect situation?
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:lol: :lol: :lol:

If I had a dollar for every time that I have wanted to write the words in italics. . .)

(If I had a dollar for every time that I have wanted to write those words and refrained from doing so, I would be rich. I have refrained. I am happy to see that someone finally actually wrote what I have only fantasized about writing. Vernacular tidbit of the day.)

This quip is the best serious one-liner of the week.
Don't change a thing.
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2019, 18:06
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generis wrote:
• The second, was caused, is passive voice. Barring an actual error in the grammar, any instance of the active voice is preferable to a use of the passive voice. [CAREFUL]

Is it really matter in GMAT?

One possible choice: if D is removed from options, is there any chance for choice F to be legitimate choice?
F) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.
This one is also passive voice. will this choice be strong contender for correct choice?
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2019, 00:16
Why is A wrong? Is it only because of its meaning? It is ok that it is less preferable than D because of passive voice. But why is it grammatically wrong?
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2019, 03:34
Active voice is preferred in gmat so D is the answer
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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2019, 02:19
Logical and meaning based question
option D follows the correct pattern of sequence of events
IMO D

generis wrote:

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The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.


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Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of   [#permalink] 20 Jan 2019, 02:19
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