GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 17 Feb 2019, 10:05

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in February
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
272829303112
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
242526272812
Open Detailed Calendar
  • Free GMAT Algebra Webinar

     February 17, 2019

     February 17, 2019

     07:00 AM PST

     09:00 AM PST

    Attend this Free Algebra Webinar and learn how to master Inequalities and Absolute Value problems on GMAT.
  • Valentine's day SALE is on! 25% off.

     February 18, 2019

     February 18, 2019

     10:00 PM PST

     11:00 PM PST

    We don’t care what your relationship status this year - we love you just the way you are. AND we want you to crush the GMAT!

The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

 
Senior SC Moderator
avatar
V
Joined: 22 May 2016
Posts: 2471
The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 10:26
1
3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (01:53) correct 46% (01:58) wrong based on 228 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Project SC Butler: Day 72 Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.


The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed. There may be no best or excellent answers, or there may be a few.

_________________

To live is the rarest thing in the world.
Most people just exist.

Oscar Wilde

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 19 Mar 2018
Posts: 29
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Strategy
GMAT 1: 600 Q42 V31
WE: Operations (Energy and Utilities)
CAT Tests
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 10:55
A and D both give a cause and effect relationship. I marked D as the correct answer choice as it states that the Big Bag caused the expansion 15 billion years ago and the result- sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. The cause of the expansion is Big Bag that took place 15 billion years ago and the result -sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. So, D is the correct answer choice according to me.

Posted from my mobile device
Manager
Manager
User avatar
S
Joined: 28 Aug 2018
Posts: 206
CAT Tests
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 12:25
Imo D

A:wrong usage of word big bag

Only D uses correct word and shows the cause and effect by ing modifier

Posted from my mobile device
_________________

"Press +1 KUDOS"

Be very critical of my Post
Ask as many questions of my post possible

Intern
Intern
User avatar
B
Joined: 15 Nov 2018
Posts: 22
Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.76
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 13:01
3
Meaning Analysis:

The sentence conveys that one A caused B and the final result is C.

A is Big Bang; B is expansion; C is galaxies rushing outwards

Error Analysis:

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago. (with galaxies rushing outwards seems like it is modifying expansion of the universe. This is not the case. A caused B, resulted in galaxies rushing outwards..)

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago. (Same as A)

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other. (and suggests that expansion was caused by both Big bang and galaxies rushing outwards. This is not correct)

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing eve outward away from each other. (Aha. Correct as described by meaning analysis)

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. (causing the explosion .... sending the galaxies is not parallel and distorts the intended meaning. Big bang caused the expansion which resulted in galaxies rushing outwards)
Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 680
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 13:17
1
generis wrote:

The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bag about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing eve outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

The bold part is the direct result of green part in the sense of meaning. So, D should be the correct choice.
_________________

“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”
― Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 680
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 13:30
1
zubair123 wrote:
E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other. (causing the explosion .... sending the galaxies is not parallel and distorts the intended meaning. Big bang caused the expansion which resulted in galaxies rushing outwards)

E is not a sentence at all; it's a sentence fragment!
_________________

“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”
― Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 680
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 13:39
1
NRJ11090 wrote:
A and D both give a cause and effect relationship.

You make me crazy saying the quote! How A is cause and effect situation?
Thanks__
_________________

“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”
― Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Senior SC Moderator
avatar
V
Joined: 22 May 2016
Posts: 2471
The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 18:50
2
Yash312 wrote:
Imo D

A:wrong usage of word big bag

Only D uses correct word and shows the cause and effect by ing modifier

Posted from my mobile device

Yash312 :lol: :lol:

"Big Bag"? Really? :lol:

Those were typos.

This thread is hilarious.
_________________

To live is the rarest thing in the world.
Most people just exist.

Oscar Wilde

Senior SC Moderator
avatar
V
Joined: 22 May 2016
Posts: 2471
The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jan 2019, 18:53
1
AsadAbu wrote:
NRJ11090 wrote:
A and D both give a cause and effect relationship.

You make me crazy saying the quote! How A is cause and effect situation?
Thanks__

:lol: :lol: :lol:

If I had a dollar for every time that I have wanted to write the words in italics. . .)

(If I had a dollar for every time that I have wanted to write those words and refrained from doing so, I would be rich. I have refrained. I am happy to see that someone finally actually wrote what I have only fantasized about writing. Vernacular tidbit of the day.)

This quip is the best serious one-liner of the week.
Don't change a thing.
_________________

To live is the rarest thing in the world.
Most people just exist.

Oscar Wilde

Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Status: eternal student
Joined: 06 Mar 2018
Posts: 135
Location: Kazakhstan
Concentration: Technology, General Management
GPA: 3.87
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2019, 00:39
3
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 72 Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.


Because whole sentence is underlined we have to carefully examine all answer choices:

(A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

placement of modifier “with galaxies” is incorrect - this is not the intended meaning of the sentence
For more information about with + [noun] + [participle] please see Mister Mike's explanation

Meaning of the sentence: Carl (astronomer) affirmed that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 1000000000000 years ago or so. This expansion then caused some galaxies run away from each other

Attachment:
A.JPG
A.JPG [ 46.48 KiB | Viewed 838 times ]


B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

Same issue with (A) - modifier placement error. Additionally we have verb tense error, explosion was 1000000000000 years ago, why is?????

Attachment:
B.JPG
B.JPG [ 47.91 KiB | Viewed 839 times ]


C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

"and" //ism marker, but we don't have anything in the sentence to be // to the galaxies

Attachment:
C.JPG
C.JPG [ 37.78 KiB | Viewed 838 times ]


D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

Beautiful structure, clean and tidy, all verbs and subjects are in place and agree in number, verb tenses are also fine - past simple. Modifier ",+sending" smoothly describes and gives the result of the expansion process, and modifies preceeding clause. "sending" - represents current action also, becouse expansion happened 1000000000 years ago, but still going on. I'm happy

For more information about V-ing modifier please see e-gmat explanations

Attachment:
D.JPG
D.JPG [ 39.9 KiB | Viewed 838 times ]


E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

As Sir Charles said, such mess here that I didn't know how to explain it :blushing
There is no verb for "Big Band", even if we consider "causing" as a modifier of "Big Bang, but what about ", + sending", what is modifies here? it's not // to "causing" - no //ism marker. Anyway (E) is out.

Attachment:
E.JPG
E.JPG [ 36.29 KiB | Viewed 839 times ]


(D) is the answer
_________________

(no one is ideal, please correct if you see any mistakes or gaps in my explanation, it will be helpful for both of us, thank you)

___________________
Practice makes perfect!


It is pointless to try to study if it is not fun, then it becomes a chore. At that point, you will either hate your studies or became afraid of them.

Senior SC Moderator
avatar
V
Joined: 22 May 2016
Posts: 2471
The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2019, 16:18
1

Project SC Butler: Day 72 Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and [that] the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang [VERB]?, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

I do not agree with parts of the OE from this source.

• There are two underlined verbs. Posited is the same in all five choices.

• The second, was caused, is passive voice. Barring an actual error in the grammar, any instance of the active voice is preferable to a use of the passive voice. [CAREFUL]

• For questions of this nature, you can generally eliminate choices that use the passive voice. Eliminate A, B, and C.
Just one problem: there ARE grammatical errors in A, B, and C.
Eliminate on the basis of grammatical error before eliminating on the basis of "passive voice."


Choice E is active, but cuts the verb altogether, leaving the subject, the Big Bang, as a fragmented clause.
Therefore, eliminate E

************
Errors

Split #1: with galaxies rushing ever outward

comma + with + verbING generally should be just "extra" description. If the subject matter is a separate action, it's better to use a full clause with a subject
and a verb than "with + verbING."

One way to test the issue? Keep only with and the noun. If the sentence still makes sense, the with-phrase is okay.

For example, A) Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago. (See analysis below.)

This issue turns on meaning.
Removing "rushing away from each other" leaves us with the logic that the galaxies expanded and the universe came along or vice versa.
It sounds as if the galaxies accompanied the universe, I think, in some kind of expansion.
Once we read option D, it should be clear that part of the theory is that galaxies ARE "rushing away from each other."
(That or, ahem, we have been reading enough that we are familiar with one of the most famous theories in the history of science.)

A) Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago. :(

B) Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies , is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago. :(

You could hold A if you really were not sure. Compared to D, however, there is no contest.

Option B has another grammatical error.
Something IS not caused now that happened 15 billion years ago.

Eliminate A and B

For a really excellent post about with + participle phrases, see Mike McGarry , HERE.

Split #2: Option C - logical causation; alternatively, repeat that
Option C is strange. The Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe and presumably caused the galaxies to rush away from each other (the expansion of the universe did not cause the galaxies to rush away from each other; the latter fact IS expansion).

Logical causation is not clear here.

If we add a THAT, the sentence makes more sense, but I am still not convinced that the logical causation exists.
Comparing C to D? D wins.

Why would we repeat that?
Some verbs must be followed by that.
Posited is one of them.
Sagan posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang . . . and [posited] THAT galaxies are rushing away from each other.
We need to tie each object of the verb POSITED back to POSITED with the repeated use of the word THAT.

Again, if you are not sure, keep C and compare to D. No contest. D wins.

Elimination of Option E is correctly described in the official part of the OE, above the asterisks. FRAGMENT!

Answer D

Glad to have everyone's posts.
And: I apologize for the typo in my original post.

There is no such thing as the Big Bag, theory—at least not one articulated by Carl Sagan, and not one pertaining to the beginning of spacetime 15 billion years ago.
I doubt that bags of any kind were around then.

My typo led to much hilarity, however, so thank you all for the laugh.

Good answers!

We have some very good answers, and two excellent answers that are too close to call. Each has its own style; each is very good.

zubair123 and GKomoku get kudos for best answer (GKomoku , your posts are hilarious, too -- understated editorializing is a dying art.)
_________________

To live is the rarest thing in the world.
Most people just exist.

Oscar Wilde

Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 680
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2019, 17:06
1
generis wrote:
• The second, was caused, is passive voice. Barring an actual error in the grammar, any instance of the active voice is preferable to a use of the passive voice. [CAREFUL]

Is it really matter in GMAT?

One possible choice: if D is removed from options, is there any chance for choice F to be legitimate choice?
F) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.
This one is also passive voice. will this choice be strong contender for correct choice?
Thank you__
_________________

“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”
― Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 26 Dec 2018
Posts: 1
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jan 2019, 23:16
Why is A wrong? Is it only because of its meaning? It is ok that it is less preferable than D because of passive voice. But why is it grammatically wrong?
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 27 Dec 2018
Posts: 36
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, International Business
GPA: 3.48
WE: General Management (Manufacturing)
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Jan 2019, 02:34
Active voice is preferred in gmat so D is the answer
SVP
SVP
User avatar
G
Joined: 18 Aug 2017
Posts: 1775
Location: India
Concentration: Sustainability, Marketing
GPA: 4
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jan 2019, 01:19
Logical and meaning based question
option D follows the correct pattern of sequence of events
IMO D

generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 72 Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

A) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

B) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the expansion of the universe, with galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other, is caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago.

C) Carl Sagan, the preeminent astronomer, posited that the expansion of the universe was caused by the Big Bang about 15 billion years ago and the galaxies are rushing ever outward away from each other.

D) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang caused the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.

E) The preeminent astronomer, Carl Sagan, posited that the Big Bang, causing the expansion of the universe about 15 billion years ago, sending the galaxies rushing ever outward away from each other.


The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed. There may be no best or excellent answers, or there may be a few.

_________________

If you liked my solution then please give Kudos. Kudos encourage active discussions.

GMAT Club Bot
Re: The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of   [#permalink] 20 Jan 2019, 01:19
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The preeminent astronomer Carl Sagan posited that the expansion of

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.