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Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a

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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2015, 10:39
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Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per year
C. year, compared to the previously $7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required previously
E. year as opposed to the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year
The clause before the comma + verbing is "that (refers to law) requires them to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of the higher education"
so verb+ing should modify the previous clause and should make sense with the subject of the clause. Definitely "law" is not paying.


B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per year
who previously paid ? not clear

C. year, compared to the previously $7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
Previously is an adverb so it should modify a verb. we don't have a verb here.

D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required previously
Looks least of the devils

E. year as opposed to the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education
"as opposed to" is not a comparison marker but it is a contrast marker . We need a comparison marker.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2016, 10:35
I simplified the sentence into:

The law requires $300 instead of $7.

Narrowed it down to D or E. Do we use "instead of" or "as opposed to."


"As opposed to" sounds a lot more negative than instead of. I would say, "instead of 7" or, "as opposed to not paying at all!"
Answer: D
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2016, 11:56
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DJ1986 wrote:
I simplified the sentence into:

The law requires $300 instead of $7.

Narrowed it down to D or E. Do we use "instead of" or "as opposed to."


"As opposed to" sounds a lot more negative than instead of. I would say, "instead of 7" or, "as opposed to not paying at all!"
Answer: D


Here is how I view the comparisons in D and E:

D: X instead of Y. X = $330 a year toward the cost of higher education, Y = the $7 per year required previously

E: X as opposed to Y. X = $330 a year, Y = the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

In D, it is clear why $330 is required. It is also clear why $7 was required, because the sentence states the $7 required previously.
In E, it is not clear why $330 is required. It is nonetheless clear why $7 was required previously.

Because of the lack of clarity about $330 a year in E, D is a better option.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2016, 18:59
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2016, 08:34
mvictor wrote:
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...


$7 is a thing and hence is a noun. Just like 'red car' is a thing.
So the use of previously (an adverb) is wrong here.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2016, 08:40
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
mvictor wrote:
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...


$7 is a thing and hence is a noun. Just like 'red car' is a thing.
So the use of previously (an adverb) is wrong here.


but isn't the red car a complex noun? formed by an adjective + noun?
so is in this question - 7 is adjective, dollars is noun, previously 7 - makes sense, no?
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2016, 21:47
mvictor wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
mvictor wrote:
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...


$7 is a thing and hence is a noun. Just like 'red car' is a thing.
So the use of previously (an adverb) is wrong here.


but isn't the red car a complex noun? formed by an adjective + noun?
so is in this question - 7 is adjective, dollars is noun, previously 7 - makes sense, no?


Yes, correct. So think about this:
Will you say "The beautiful red car is ... " or "The beautifully red car is ..."

The point is that the entire "$7" acts as a noun and you need an adjective to modify it, not an adverb.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2016, 05:31
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:

but isn't the red car a complex noun? formed by an adjective + noun?
so is in this question - 7 is adjective, dollars is noun, previously 7 - makes sense, no?


mvictor wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
mvictor wrote:
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...


$7 is a thing and hence is a noun. Just like 'red car' is a thing.
So the use of previously (an adverb) is wrong here.


Yes, correct. So think about this:
Will you say "The beautiful red car is ... " or "The beautifully red car is ..."

The point is that the entire "$7" acts as a noun and you need an adjective to modify it, not an adverb.


VeritasPrepKarishma... if we mean that the red colour is beautiful, we must use the adverb "beautifully", since it modifies the adjective "red". However if we mean that the car is beautiful, we must use adjective "beautiful" since it modifies the noun "car".

Consider a situation: The colour of the car in my opinion is not red, but someone else says that it is red. Hence I make the following statement:

I purchased the supposedly red car.

The statement would be grammatically correct. Isn't it?

Similarly, if the intent above is to modify the adjective "7", not the noun "dollar", I tend to agree with the logic of mvictor. Nonetheless, as you said, I do agree that $7 can be considered as one object here and hence the adjective "previous" would be appropriate. Yet one could also say "previously 7 dollar," isn't it?

The price rose from previously 7 dollar to 10 dollar........... Is this sentence wrong?
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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This is an official question, it appeared in GMAT-Prep exam pack-1 for me. And it needs more discussion. Request experts to talk about this in a bit more detail. Mostly D vs E.

Reply awaited!
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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arhumsid wrote:
This is an official question, it appeared in GMAT-Prep exam pack-1 for me. And it needs more discussion. Request experts to talk about this in a bit more detail. Mostly D vs E.

Reply awaited!
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In option E, it is not clear for what $330 a year is contributed. It is alright to omit the repeated part from the second element of comparison, not from the first. Here "for the cost of higher education" appears in the second element ("the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education"), but not in the first ("$330 a year").

In option D, the part "toward the cost of higher education" can be eliminated from the second element (the $7 per year required previously toward the cost of higher education ) since the meaning is not obscured because of this omission.

[Brief explanation of other options:

Option A and B does not highlight the comparison between the previous value and the current value.

In option C, the adverb "previously" wrongly refers to the noun phrase "$7 per year". An adjective may refer to a noun phrase, but an adverb cannot.]
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2017, 00:40
Hi Expert,

X instead of Y-- X and Y both should be structurally parallel.

In choice D, how X and Y are structurally parallel. Please help !
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2017, 04:09
AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,

X instead of Y-- X and Y both should be structurally parallel.

In choice D, how X and Y are structurally parallel. Please help !


Contribute X instead of Y.

X = $300 a year
Y = the $7 per year

Two yearly values are compared. X is modified by "toward the cost of higher education" (prepositional phrase), and Y is modified by "required previously" (past participle), but this is not a problem - the modifiers are not compared.

However the comma before "instead" should not have been there.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2017, 18:52
Hello Experts,

Could you please further explain the Option C
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2017, 07:15
Bharath99 wrote:
Hello Experts,

Could you please further explain the Option C


The adverb "previously" is wrong. An adverb must refer to a verb or an adjective. However, "$7 per year" is a noun phrase requiring an adjective. Thus "previous" instead of "previously" should have been used. Hence option C is wrong.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 09:10
ashkrs wrote:
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to
protest a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of higher
education, previously paying $7 per year.


A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously $7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education

Please explain.



shouldn't it be "towards" in all the options?
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 09:40
rekhabishop wrote:
ashkrs wrote:
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to
protest a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of higher
education, previously paying $7 per year.


A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously $7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education

Please explain.



shouldn't it be "towards" in all the options?



Hello rekhabishop,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

There is no difference in the usage of toward and towards. Both the words are used in the same context.

It is just that in American English, the word toward is used while in British English, the word towards is used.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2017, 10:24
daagh wrote:
A says that the higher education was previously paying $7

B The phrase - for which was previously paid $7 per year - is too awkward to consider
In C - previously $7 per year - is grammatically wrong. Previously is an adverb and can not modify the noun of $7

D has no flaws as such and is the best answer.

E -as opposed to -is not the right idiom to describe comparison, unless the arms of the comparison are positioned opposite to the others physically? In a weird way, E may also give the feeling that the students were in fact opposed to the $7 per year.


Hi daagh,
Pls pardon my ignorance & since nobody has raised this point it feels awkward to be the only one. I eliminated D & E because both use "the"7$. Is it ok to use the before a particular noun?
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2017, 14:29
ManishKM1 wrote:
Hi daagh,
Pls pardon my ignorance & since nobody has raised this point it feels awkward to be the only one. I eliminated D & E because both use "the"7$. Is it ok to use the before a particular noun?



Hello ManishKM1,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

Any article - a, an, or the - is used before a noun entity. In Choice D and E, $7 (7 dollar) per year is a noun entity. Hence, usage of article the before this noun entity is correct.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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A COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action.
Thus, A implies the following:
When the students contribute $330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying $7 per year.
Not the intended meaning.

B states that students must contribute $330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid $7 per year.
Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid $7 per year.
Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the $330 a year AND the $7 previously paid).
To make it clear that one amount ($330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount ($7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas).
Eliminate B.

In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the $7 per year (noun phrase).
Eliminate C.

In E, the reason that students must contribute $330 a year seems to be conveyed by the modifier required previously for the cost of higher education.
The result is a nonsensical meaning:
A law that REQUIRES them to contribute $330 a year REQUIRED PREVIOUSLY.
Eliminate E.

The correct answer is D.

Instead of is a preposition that means IN PLACE OF.
Generally, instead of + noun serves as an adverb, indicating that an action is performed upon one thing INSTEAD OF another.

In the SCs below, all of the modifiers within quotes serve the same basic function:
Each serves to FURTHER DEFINE A VALUE IN THE PRECEDING CLAUSE (shown below in upper case letters).

The law requires students to contribute $330 A YEAR toward the cost of higher education, "instead of the $7 per year" required previously.

Soaring television costs accounted for MORE THAN HALF the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, "a greater proportion" than in any previous election.

Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly EIGHT MILLION PEOPLE, "about as many" as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Siberia's Lake Baikal holds 20 PERCENT of the world's fresh water, "more than all" the North American Great Lakes combined.

These sorts of modifiers are VERY COMMON on the GMAT.
COMMA + instead of + noun is simply one example of this type of modifier.

option D: X instead of Y. X = $330 a year toward the cost of higher education, Y = the $7 per year required previously

option E: X as opposed to Y. X = $330 a year, Y = the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

In D, it is clear why $330 is required. It is also clear why $7 was required, because the sentence states the $7 required previously.
In E, it is not clear why $330 is required. It is nonetheless clear why $7 was required previously.

Because of the lack of clarity about $330 a year in E, D is a better option.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 03:16
Hello Verbal Experts,

The OA here is D. But, I am not convinced with it.

The idiom used here is X instead of Y, where X and Y both must be parallel.

Here in this option: to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required previously
X=$330 a year
Y=the $7 per year


Is the word 'the' before $7 creating a problem and violating parallelism?

Please let me know.

Thanks in advance! :-)
Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a   [#permalink] 26 Dec 2017, 03:16

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