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Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n

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Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2013, 02:14
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Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have no thoughts or feelings, and, literally speaking, they perform no actions. Thus they have no moral rights or responsibilities. But no nation can survive unless many of its citizens attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands. Obviously, then, a nation __________.

Which one of the following most logically completes the philosopher’s argument?

(A) cannot continue to exist unless something other than the false belief that the nation has moral rights motivates its citizens to make sacrifices

(B) cannot survive unless many of its citizens have some beliefs that are literally false

(C) can never be a target of moral praise or blame

(D) is not worth the sacrifices that its citizens make on its behalf

(E) should always be thought of in metaphorical rather than literal terms

Source: LSAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2013, 19:03
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Boiled down, this stimulus states that nations have no moral obligations, but that nations cannot survive without its citizens attributing such obligations to it (aka the citizens having false beliefs). This leads nicely into answer choice B, which states that citizens must have FALSE beliefs in order for the nation to survive.

Answer choices C-E are all out of scope here. Answer choice A comes close, but because the argument leaves no room for anything other than these false beliefs to allow the nations to survive (the argument states "...nothing else could prompt citizens...," we must outrule A and pick answer choice B.

I hope this helps!!!
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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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creativeminddu wrote:
Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have no thoughts or feelings, and, literally speaking, they perform no actions. Thus they have no moral rights or responsibilities. But no nation can survive unless many of its citizens attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands. Obviously, then, a nation _______.

Which one of the following most logically completes the philosopher’s argument?

(A) cannot continue to exist unless something other than the false belief that the nation has moral rights motivates its citizens to make sacrifices

(B) cannot survive unless many of its citizens have some beliefs that are literally false

(C) can never be a target of moral praise or blame

(D) is not worth the sacrifices that its citizens make on its behalf

(E) should always be thought of in metaphorical rather than literal terms


It seems to me that only A, B are talking about the survival of nation which is the scope of passage/ argument. But one sec on the C also fits properly. Now put A first;- Survival depends on Beliefs Other than the False belief which is stated, hence wrong. C- talks about praise which is OK but ask talks about the blame, which is not the scope of argument. Now B - which talks about many of citizens - some literally false beliefs, need to figure out what the author is, yes a philosopher- literary person, correct.



Hope it helps
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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2015, 06:25
Can someone explain the following in simple words: "But no nation can survive unless many of its citizens attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands"

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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 08:02
Can someone pls explain y E is wrong? or out of scope?
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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2016, 17:36
E is wrong as it never relates to the argument.

Argument talks about nation,people & sacrifices but option E talks about its use i.e literal and metaphorical.
To complete the argument,one must use a premise from the argument.

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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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creativeminddu wrote:
Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have no thoughts or feelings, and, literally speaking, they perform no actions. Thus they have no moral rights or responsibilities. But no nation can survive unless many of its citizens attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands. Obviously, then, a nation _______.

Which one of the following most logically completes the philosopher’s argument?

(A) cannot continue to exist unless something other than the false belief that the nation has moral rights motivates its citizens to make sacrifices

(B) cannot survive unless many of its citizens have some beliefs that are literally false

(C) can never be a target of moral praise or blame

(D) is not worth the sacrifices that its citizens make on its behalf

(E) should always be thought of in metaphorical rather than literal terms


Quote:
Premise 1: Nations are not literally persons.

Sub. Conclusion: Nations have NO moral rights or responsibilities.

Premise 2: Nations cannot survive unless many of its citizens attribute moral rights or responsibilities to them

Nations surviveAttribute rights/responsibilities

The conclusion indicator "obviously" in the last sentence shows this to be a Main Point question. If nations cannot survive unless we attribute moral rights to them, but nations actually don't have such rights, it logically follows that a nation cannot survive unless we hold beliefs that are literally false. The combination of the sub. conclusion and the second premise proves answer choice (B) to be correct.

Whether nations can be a target of moral praise or blame (C) is not a relevant consideration, and falls entirely outside the scope of the argument. The author's purpose is to illustrate some of the factors necessary for the survival of nations, not whether nations can be blamed or praised for something.

(E) is incorrect, because the author never suggested that nations do not exist (literally). They do. It is the qualities we attribute to nations - not the nations themselves - that should be thought of in metaphorical rather than literal terms.


Remember that the word “some” just means “one or more.” So all we need is one example of a false belief that needs to be held by citizens in order for nations to survive. And we have it… if citizens don’t believe the falsehood that their nations have moral rights, then nations will fail to survive. This is logical, conservatively stated completion of the argument.
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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 14:05
this is a conclusion question, not an inference. The first sentence of the passage does not do any help to the conclusion. The key reason is the second sentence.

This question is unlikely to appear in gmat.

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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2017, 09:27
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This question is a bit ridiculous...1200-level question if you ask me:

Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have no thoughts or feelings, and, literally speaking, they perform no actions. Thus they have no moral rights or responsibilities. But no nation can survive unless many of its citizens attribute such rights and responsibilities to it, for nothing else could prompt people to make the sacrifices national citizenship demands. Obviously, then, a nation __________.

The first sentence tells us a KEY PREMISE that we need to solve this problem:
Nations are NOT humans; Nations don't have rights and responsibilities. Thus ONLY humans have rights and responsibilities. (You can argue here that animals/aliens could potentially have rights and responsibilities but the over-usage of "literally" tells us that the author is definitely assuming only humans can have them)

Then the second sentence says citizens attribute right and responsibilities, combining the logic from above, means that citizens believe nations are human. This is a false belief because of the premise aforementioned.
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Re: Philosopher: Nations are not literally persons; they have n   [#permalink] 29 Nov 2017, 09:27
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