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# Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a

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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2017, 10:27
I have in my notes that we don't have to use comma to connect two clauses when the subject is the same, although I did not write down the source. Someone should confirm this
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 17:33
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The simple answer is that the GMAT is not consistent on this. Keep in mind that comma usage is generally not tested directly. The one absolute rule you *can* rely on is that you can't join two independent clauses with *only* a comma, as in "I like pie, it is tasty." You always need a conjunction or a semicolon.
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2017, 11:04
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2
Shiv2016, I think part of the confusion is that there's a typo in the OP: there's no comma before the "and" in the OG version of this question. Here's the corrected version:

Quote:
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising
(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise
(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

So (B) is correct, and the comma is a non-issue.

Quote:
Also can this be a correct version of this sentence?

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago.

In real life, your sentence would be completely fine, in my opinion. But if we're being really strict and literal with this particular OG question, it's definitely not ideal: it sounds like we're comparing the prices themselves to last year, and that's not logical. More importantly, there's a better alternative available that makes the comparison much clearer: "Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than those of a year ago..." The correct version sharpens the comparison between old prices and new prices.
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2018, 17:09
Arlene0504 wrote:
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago, and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising
(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise
(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

OG2017 SC758

daagh, @Experts,

What does "those of" stand in option B.

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago, and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising

If it were just "THOSE" i would have understood. But i am not able to understand how "those of" stands for "prices"
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2018, 20:44
2
ammuseeru wrote:
Arlene0504 wrote:
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago, and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising
(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise
(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

OG2017 SC758

daagh, @Experts,

What does "those of" stand in option B.

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago, and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising

If it were just "THOSE" i would have understood. But i am not able to understand how "those of" stands for "prices"

"Those" is a plural pronoun, so it has to refer to a plural noun, right? Well, the only plural noun that comes before "those" is "prices," so there's nothing else it could possibly refer to! If you're unsure about the logic, simply replace "those" with "prices" and see if the sentence makes sense.

"Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than [prices] of a year ago..."

Sounds okay to me! So we've got confirmation that "those" does indeed refer to "prices."

(It seems as though you were thrown off by the presence of the preposition "of." All it's doing in the above sentence is modifying "prices." Which prices? The ones of a year ago. It plays the exact same role in the construction "those of a year ago.")

I hope that helps!
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2018, 01:59
DmitryFarber wrote:
zoezhuyan, I agree with my colleague Ron Purewal (cited above) that the comparisons in A and C aren't necessarily faulty. There are other reasons to eliminate those choices. However, I want to make a slight correction to your analysis above. Your use of "that of" or "those of" in parentheses makes it appear that the implied comparison is between two nouns. Actually, your choices should read ("they were") or ("it was"). The comparison is actually between two adverbial modifiers. Prices are different now than they were last year. This is important because I can't say something like this:

American crows are larger today than in ancient China.

If we filled in "those," this might make sense: "American crows are larger today than those (crows) in ancient China." However, the actual implied meaning here is a comparison between two modifiers: "today" and "in ancient China." "American crows are larger today than (they were) in ancient China." This would make it seem that American crows existed in ancient China!

thank you, it is great explanation
the takeaway is that "those" can or can not happen in the comparison.
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2019, 15:42
5
Hello Everyone!

This is a great example of a sentence that focuses on idiom structure and comparisons! Let's start by taking a quick look over each option, and highlight any major differences in orange:

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising
(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise
(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

After a quick glance over the options, a few key differences jump out:

1. than vs. as (idiom structure)
2. a year ago / those of a year ago / they were a year ago (parallelism with comparisons)
3. even though / despite (transitions)
4. raised / raising / raise (verb tense)

Let's start with #1 on our list: than vs. as. No matter which one we choose, it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly, so let's start there. This is an issue of idiom structure. Whenever we see comparative language (in this case, the word "higher"), we know that the sentence is comparing two items and must be worded a certain way:

X is higher than Y = CORRECT
X is higher as Y = WRONG

Let's see which options do this correctly, and eliminate the ones that do not:

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising
(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise
(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

We can eliminate options D & E because they don't follow the proper "X is higher than Y" idiom structure. That was easy!

Now, let's move on to #2 on our list: parallelism with comparisons. Whenever we compare two items by using the idiom structure "X is higher than Y," the X and Y in the idiom need to be parallel. Let's look at the original sentence closely to determine what two items it's comparing:

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

We can see that the sentence should compare the prices today versus prices from a year ago. Let's make sure each option compares similar things:

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised

This is INCORRECT because it compares the prices today to a year ago, which isn't parallel. You cannot compare prices to years - they're not the same thing!

(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising

This is CORRECT! The word "those" clearly refers to prices, so this is comparing the prices today to the prices from last year, which is parallel!

(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

This is also INCORRECT because it compares prices to years, which aren't parallel items.

There you have it - option B is the correct choice! It's the only one that compares two like items, and it uses the correct idiom structure for comparisons!

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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2019, 00:57
Can't we say there is an error of comparison in A and C. We can't compare price with an year. To compare similar entities we need those.

daagh wrote:
First thing: Please look into transcription; corn and soybean prices should not be underlined.

For those who want to go into the complicated process finding the nuances in meaning created by ellipsis, they can do that; but before that one should ensure that one can eliminate as many choices as possible on grammar alone. IMO, this problem can be easily solved without bothering about the differences in meaning of comparison. We can forthwith dispense with D and E for using the ‘as’ comparator instead of the ‘than’ comparator. Among A, B and C:

A: than a year ago and are going down, even though floods I the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised --- are hurting and raised are blatant shift of tense. So gone.
B: than those of a year ago, and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising ---Grammatically good
C: than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising—This is a fragment; the conjunction ‘and’ creates confusion as to what are hurting crops and raising. They seem to point to the subject the sentence prices at producer level;

As a foot-note, I wish to add a small comment by no less than Ron on this
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... 32362.html

Quote:
RonPurewal wrote: both versions are fine.
I looked at the problem, and—just as I suspected—the choices with '...than a year ago' can be eliminated for other, quite straightforward, reasons.

Don’t forget—the OG answer keys are usually incomplete, and often incorrect.
The official PROBLEMS are essentially flawless, but the official answer keys are not. (GMAC's all-stars, the people who write the problems, do not write the answer keys; GMAC 'outsources' that work to people of lesser talent, presumably to cut costs.)
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2019, 01:31
swati7garg wrote:
Can't we say there is an error of comparison in A and C. We can't compare price with an year.

Hi Swati, even the official explanation says so!

However, I feel this is not the case, since A and C are correctly comparing two time zones (now and one year ago).

A case in point is the following correct official sentence:

Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last.

Again, the above sentence is comparing two time zones (this year and last year).
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2019, 14:07
Hi,

Option B

According to explanation
than those of a year ago = than [ Prices at the producer level ] of a year ago

As per my reasoning correct comparison will be

than [ Prices at the producer level ] a year ago (of is ommitted here)
than those a year ago
than a year ago ( as per option A)
i didn't get what of is doing in OA . I understand OA is absolutely right .
please let me know where i am wrong...

Thanks.
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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03 May 2019, 08:07
hello, anyone knows that in option B "are hurting crops and therefore raising" ,what does "raising" mean? If it is a verb form, there should have "are" , so the sentence should be "are hurting crops and therefore are raising.."; or is it a modifier ? but it should modifier the noun right before it. I'm very confused...
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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03 May 2019, 19:43
1
layla2019 wrote:
hello, anyone knows that in option B "are hurting crops and therefore raising" ,what does "raising" mean? If it is a verb form, there should have "are" , so the sentence should be "are hurting crops and therefore are raising.."; or is it a modifier ? but it should modifier the noun right before it. I'm very confused...
Raising is part of the verb are raising, because are is "common" to both hurting and raising. We can read that portion of the sentence like this:

B ... floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising corn and soybean prices.

floods and drought
(a) are hurting crops
and
(b) are therefore raising prices.

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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2019, 23:37
daagh wrote:
First thing: Please look into transcription; corn and soybean prices should not be underlined.

For those who want to go into the complicated process finding the nuances in meaning created by ellipsis, they can do that; but before that one should ensure that one can eliminate as many choices as possible on grammar alone. IMO, this problem can be easily solved without bothering about the differences in meaning of comparison. We can forthwith dispense with D and E for using the ‘as’ comparator instead of the ‘than’ comparator. Among A, B and C:

A: than a year ago and are going down, even though floods I the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised --- are hurting and raised are blatant shift of tense. So gone.
B: than those of a year ago, and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising ---Grammatically good
C: than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising—This is a fragment; the conjunction ‘and’ creates confusion as to what are hurting crops and raising. They seem to point to the subject the sentence prices at producer level;

As a foot-note, I wish to add a small comment by no less than Ron on this
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... 32362.html

Quote:
RonPurewal wrote: both versions are fine.
I looked at the problem, and—just as I suspected—the choices with '...than a year ago' can be eliminated for other, quite straightforward, reasons.

Don’t forget—the OG answer keys are usually incomplete, and often incorrect.
The official PROBLEMS are essentially flawless, but the official answer keys are not. (GMAC's all-stars, the people who write the problems, do not write the answer keys; GMAC 'outsources' that work to people of lesser talent, presumably to cut costs.)

Sir in A & C , isnt there a problem in comparison . Price is compared with year
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Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jan 2020, 02:02
[quote="Arlene0504"]Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised

(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising

(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise

(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

this is special problem.
comparison questions is hard. we have normaly two kinds.
case 1
two noun compared are different because their adjectival, normaly preposition phrase, are different. in this case, "that/those " is used.
case 2
two nouns compared are different because the two clauses modifying them are different. in this case, only adverb, normally a preposition phrase, of the second clause is kept.

this problem is special because, it dose not use adverb in the second clause as we expect. instead , it change the structure of the second part of comparison, and do not use parallel pattern. it uses "that/those" instead.
"than a year ago" is good. and this phrase should be what we normally see. but is "those of a year ago" wrong?
the write does not use parallelism any more, so, he has to make clear the second element of comparison. "those of a year ago' is not parallel to the first part but the purpose of writing is clearness not parallelism. so, "those of a year ago " is right.

the writer present a strange pattern "those of a year ago" when "than a year ago" should work. this presentation wants to kill us. but if we understand that we have 2 ways of writing comparison sentence , we are fine.

yes, we have 2 ways of writing comparison sentence, using parallelism or not using parallelism. as long as the meaning is clear, we are fine.

I think "those of a year ago" in choice B is inferior to "than a year ago". but other errors are clearer and choice B is still correct. honestly, I do not like choice B.

Originally posted by thangvietnam on 27 Aug 2019, 09:17.
Last edited by thangvietnam on 16 Jan 2020, 02:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2019, 09:01
daagh wrote:
Quote:
Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last.
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago

Both sentences are not the same grammatically.

In the first, you compare this year, a noun, with another year, namely last year, another noun.
However, in the second case you are comparing now, an adverb with a year ago, a noun.

Can "a year ago" be a noun though? "I was younger a year go. I am older now."
Is "now than a year ago" correct?

Also, "Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago" => can I change it to "Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than THEY WERE a year ago", would that be correct?

Thanks!
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2020, 10:39
I don't know if that's the type of answer that people post a lot over here, but B is the OA, and it can be deduced within 10-15 seconds.

The real thing worth highlighting in B is that it conveys the full meaning of the sentence by comparing the prices of last to THOSE OF A YEAR AGO! It's the only accurate and completely logical comparison choice, hence, no need to look anywhere else, the answer is B!
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2020, 16:24
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher.... than is the correct not higher as. So eliminate D and E

in A,B,C . X is higher than Y.X and Y should be parallel. So in A and C if we will look into the sentences PRICE at the producer level are 1.3 percent higher than the PRICE of a year ago. But in A and C its comparing PRICE with YEAR which is wrong.

Hence B is the Correct answer.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised

(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising

(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise

(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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18 Jan 2020, 05:09
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

Arlene0504 wrote:
Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised corn and soybean prices.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised

(B) than those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raising

(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

(D) as those of a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south hurt crops and therefore raise

(E) as they were a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising

Choice A: Option A incorrectly compares "prices" to "a year ago" and does not maintain parallelism between the verbs "are hurting" (present continuous) and "raised" (simple past). Thus, Option A is incorrect.

Choice B: Option B correctly compares "prices" to "those (prices) of a year ago" and maintains proper parallelism and conjunction use throughout the sentence. Thus, Option B is correct.

Choice C: Option C repeats the comparison error displayed in Option A. Thus, Option C is incorrect.

Choice D: Option D uses the conjunction "as"; as this conjunction does not signify contrast, its use alters the meaning of the sentence. This answer choice also fails to maintain parallelism between the verbs "hurt" and "raise". Thus, Option D is incorrect.

Choice E: Option E repeats the conjunction error found in Option D and incorrectly implies that the "prices" are hurting crops. As the phrase "despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south" is included between two commas, the modifier "and are hurting crops..." will refer to the subject of the previous clause.

Hence, B is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of “Extra information between Two Commas on GMAT”, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a  [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2020, 20:15
“Than” must always be used with comparative words ( smaller, higher, taller..etc) . Hence eliminating options D and E on this basis.

(C) than a year ago and are going down, despite floods in the Midwest and drought in the south, and are hurting crops and therefore raising
Here “ are hurting crops and therefore raising prices” seems to be something that is done by prices at production level. This comparison doesn’t make any sense.

(A) than a year ago and are going down, even though floods in the Midwest and drought in the south are hurting crops and therefore raised
Hurting and raised : incorrect Shift to past participle from. It should be raising as it looks like it is talking about and ongoing action.

Correct choice: B

Thanks!!

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Re: Prices at the producer level are only 1.3 percent higher now than a   [#permalink] 19 Jan 2020, 20:15

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