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# The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs

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The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 Apr 2016, 01:33
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The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

Originally posted by Vinayprajapati on 05 Apr 2016, 23:31.
Last edited by Vinayprajapati on 06 Apr 2016, 01:33, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2016, 23:52
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Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

Hi,
Please underline the portion..
Now the Q..

1) verb- help vs helps
the verb refers to 'bone structure', which is singular and so should correctle be HELPS
A and D can be eliminated

2) pronoun IT vs THEY..
logically the pronoun refers to "bird-hipped dinosaurs", so THEY is correct.. An OBSERVATION on this slightly later
B, C, and D can be eliminated..
ONLY E left

ans E

However other flaws..

3) Modifier- having vs with
having is verb+ing, so modifies the entire clause.. Not correct here
so WITH is correct

Now on the pronoun THEY

The first usage of NOUN "bird-hipped dinosaurs" is in POSSESIVE form, so in many ocassion it has been seen that possesive form/Object does not directly refer to the SUBJECT pronoun..
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The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2016, 01:36
chetan2u wrote:
Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

Hi,
Please underline the portion..
Now the Q..

1) verb- help vs helps
the verb refers to 'bone structure', which is singular and so should correctle be HELPS
A and D can be eliminated

2) pronoun IT vs THEY..
logically the pronoun refers to "bird-hipped dinosaurs", so THEY is correct.. An OBSERVATION on this slightly later
B, C, and D can be eliminated..
ONLY E left

ans E

However other flaws..

3) Modifier- having vs with
having is verb+ing, so modifies the entire clause.. Not correct here
so WITH is correct

Now on the pronoun THEY

The first usage of NOUN "bird-hipped dinosaurs" is in POSSESIVE form, so in many ocassion it has been seen that possesive form/Object does not directly refer to the SUBJECT pronoun..

Thanks Underlined the text.

I have a doubt here... " They" may also refer to paleontologists??

Thanks
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Posts: 7812
Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2016, 01:46
Vinayprajapati wrote:
chetan2u wrote:
Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

Hi,
Please underline the portion..
Now the Q..

1) verb- help vs helps
the verb refers to 'bone structure', which is singular and so should correctle be HELPS
A and D can be eliminated

2) pronoun IT vs THEY..
logically the pronoun refers to "bird-hipped dinosaurs", so THEY is correct.. An OBSERVATION on this slightly later
B, C, and D can be eliminated..
ONLY E left

ans E

However other flaws..

3) Modifier- having vs with
having is verb+ing, so modifies the entire clause.. Not correct here
so WITH is correct

Now on the pronoun THEY

The first usage of NOUN "bird-hipped dinosaurs" is in POSSESIVE form, so in many ocassion it has been seen that possesive form/Object does not directly refer to the SUBJECT pronoun..

Thanks Underlined the text.

I have a doubt here... They may also refer to paleontologists??
Thanks

Yes, you are correct..
Logically it should point to "bird-hipped dinosaurs" and Grammatically it points towards "paleontologists"...
since there is no BETTER choice, we will have to select logical view..

Fortunately, in ACTUALS, this situation would be rare..
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The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2016, 01:58
1
Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

The moment i glanced over the choices i saw 2/3 and 3/2 split of having/with, helpS/help and they/it.

As it is clear that "it" cannot refer to dinosaurS, hence we are left with A and E only.

Again help is wrong verb for Structure. So D is out.

Now E is the only choice left, which is correct.
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Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2016, 21:21
I have a doubt with the pronoun "they" being ambiguous.Please shed some light on that
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The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2016, 22:03
bhamini1 wrote:
I have a doubt with the pronoun "they" being ambiguous.Please shed some light on that

Hi bhamini1,

Definition : Any relative pronoun such as that, which, who would ALWAYS refer to the NEAREST POSSIBLE ANTECEDENT. This antecedent is NEAREST POSIBLE PART OF THE SENTENCE NOT PART OF SPEECH.

Always take the help of the object whenever you see a situation like this. Pronoun abiguity whether "they" refer to "paleontologists" OR "dinosaurs" is actually not there if you read "they evolved independently of other dinosaurs", which is very clear in its meaning.

So definitly 'THEY' doesn't refer to anything BUT dinosaurs.

Hope it is clear.
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The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2017, 23:14
Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

It / They
Since bird hipped dinosaurs is plural.. they will be refer to them.
BCD / AE

help / helps
The bone structure is singular and hence must use a singular verb helps.

paleontologists / paleontologists'
paleontologists believe is correct
CD / ABE

believing / believe
CD / ABE

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Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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10 May 2018, 09:47
1) help vs helps
A and D can be eliminated

2) IT vs THEY..
B, C, and D can be eliminated
E is left and is correct
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Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2019, 04:13
Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

Bone structure(singular) of type of dinosaurs,is helping the paleontologists to explain how they evolved, With the intent in mind

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
Singular subject plural verb mismatch

b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
Plural subject (dinosaurs), singular pronoun mismatch

c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
believing, not the intent of the sentence

d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
Singular subject plural verb mismatch

e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they
All errors fixed
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Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 01:07
Vinayprajapati wrote:
The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs, having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they evolved independently of other dinosaurs.

a) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain why paleontologists believe that they
b) having pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that it
c) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain paleontologists' believing that it
d) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, help explain paleontologists' believing that it
e) with pubic bones which point downward and toward the tail, helps explain why paleontologists believe that they

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

Creating a filter: Here we have a sentence in which a supporting clause adds distance between the grammatical subject and grammatical verb of the main clause, making them harder for our ears to place next to each other. When evaluating the subject and verb of the main clause, you can omit other clauses and modifying phrases from the sentence. The grammatical subject is "structure." The word "dinosaurs" is not the grammatical subject because it's an object of the preposition "of" in the phrase "of bird-hipped dinosaurs." The grammatical verb is "help," and putting them together we have "the structure help," which is incorrect. We need a grammatically singular verb, "helps." That's our filter.

Applying the filter: (B), (C), and (E) have it, so they remain potential correct answer.

Finding objective defects: We compare these three answer choices further. Choice (C) has the garbage phrase "paleontologists believing." As we discussed in "Food and Beverage Partner," the gerund or participle construction with "-ing" is often unnecessary. Choice (E) starts with the word "with" and ends with the word "they." We can pick on either difference; the pronoun difference is easier to check. What is that pronoun intended to refer to? Bird hipped dinosaurs: they evolved independently of other dinosaurs. So, actually, (E) looks good, while (B) has a pronoun error.

The correct answer is (E).
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Re: The bone structure of bird-hipped dinosaurs   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2019, 01:07
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