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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult

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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.


(A) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

(B) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

(C) if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

(D) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

(E) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

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Originally posted by sondenso on 17 May 2008, 03:03.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Mar 2019, 01:07, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2011, 15:46
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Hey Noburu,

Pronoun ambiguity is one of those irritating things that can sometimes be tolerated, depending on the circumstances. More often than not, a case in which pronoun ambiguity is tolerated has strong structural clues that point to the intended antecedent. Here "of synthetic fertilizers" is specifying a type of use, so even though the structure shifts slightly, the fact that the word "use" occurs again in the sentence points to "synthetic fertilizers" (the thing that was used in the first part of the sentence. It's not ideal, but that happens sometimes). In general, when I go through splits I try to save pronoun ambiguity for a later sweep.

As mentioned by the above posters, the like/such as split is a concrete error that is irrefutable by GMAT standards, so B and E are out.

That leaves A, C, and D.

Choice (C)
Whenever something has lots of modifiers or clauses, try to look at the underlying structure of the sentence. What is the skeleton here?

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity,
...if these fertilizers are used...they can create problems
...and if used....they may accelerate

Structurally, when we see "whereas" we *require* what follows to have a certain form-- "Whereas A does B, C does D"---dependent clause-comma-independent clause. But, as gmattiger points out above, we have a dependent clause (if these fertilizers are used) where we need that independent clause ("C does B"). C is out.


Choice (D)--
The beginning of choice D may at first glance appear more parallel to the non-underlined portion of the sentence than the beginning of choice A.

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity...the increased USAGE (of these fertilizers)....can create problems

...BUT the sentence keeps going! The clause beginning with "while if substituted" clearly *means* "if [synthetic fertilizers are] substituted, but nowhere in the sentence has "synthetic fertilizer" been the SUBJECT of a verb. That phrase only appears as a modifier (in the nonunderlined portion). D has a definable, structural grammar issue--so this choice is out.

Choice (A)
While A has potential pronoun ambiguity, the structural flaws present in the other choices have been weeded out:

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity,...an increase (in their use) can create problems...AND their substitution....may accelerate deterioration and erosion.

The structural requirements of "Whereas A does B, C does D" are fulfilled. And the final independent clause (about substitution accelerating deterioration) is appropriately tagged on with a conjunction. So we can tolerate the potential pronoun ambiguity here.

Remember always to go from wrong to right, and that certain things are "more wrong" than others. Hope this helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2008, 20:04
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D looks good.
C -The second 'they' is confusing. (fertilizers/substitutions/traditional fertilizers ?)
Between A & D.
'an increase in their use' vs 'the increased usage'
increased usage of fertilizer = You used more fertilizer.
increase in fertilizer's use = we are not using more, but the output / quality of fertilizer is more.
fertilizer's use is increased. Fertilizer is giving more output.

For example: An increase in cell phone's use VS the increased usage of cell phone
increase in cell phone's use = there are more features etc.
Usage of cell phone = you know what I mean..

I may be wrong, but for lack of words thats all I can come up with for now.
Thats how I eliminated A.
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New post 31 Aug 2008, 12:36
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


A. Best
B. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
C. use of "IF" is not correct as there are two dependednt clasues.
D. Run-on.
E. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 12:45
GMAT TIGER wrote:
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


A. Best
B. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
C. use of "IF" is not correct as there are two dependednt clasues.
D. Run-on.
E. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.


Could you explain the rule with two dependent clauses? I thought C could be correct because it correctly uses "if" in a "if...then" statement.
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New post 31 Aug 2008, 13:35
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lionheart187 wrote:
GMAT TIGER wrote:
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


A. Best
B. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
C. use of "IF" is not correct as there are two dependednt clasues.
D. Run-on.
E. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.


Could you explain the rule with two dependent clauses? I thought C could be correct because it correctly uses "if" in a "if...then" statement.


"Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world", "if these fertilizers are used increasingly, ....................".

both arre dependent clauses. any clause starts with if, although, however, while, where as, though, even though etc. is dependent clause.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2011, 14:42
Could anybody explain why "their" in A is not ambigous?

For me, it can refer to both fertilizers and parts of the world.

Many thanks in advance.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2011, 12:11
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Good explanations above. Received a PM for further clarification on (C):

Quote:
Can you please explain in detail why C is ruled out ?

Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world,if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

Whereas the use ...,if ...used ...,they..., and if used...they....

I am confused on where and how the X&Y consistency is missing in AND

With regards,
Krishna


Hi Krishna,

The problem lies in the first few words of your bolded portion: "if these fertilizers are used"

"Whereas the use of X expanded Y, the use of fertilizers blah blah blah"

You can use variations of "the use of fertilizers":
"an increase in their use" (choice A and B)
"the increased usage" (choice D and E)

Answer (C) uses "if these fertilizers are used."
The word "used" is a verb.
"An increase in their use"--"use" is a noun.
"The increased usage"--again, noun.

You can say "the usage of these fertilizers" but you cannot say "if these fertilizers are used."

Hope that helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2011, 05:31
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sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


B,E - out for using "like" to show example
C- incorrectly uses "substitutions" instead of "substitutes" -- you can use something as substitute, not substitution.
D- "while if" is awkward. while also suggests that two actions are happening together, which is not the case here.

Ans: "A"
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New post 12 Nov 2011, 23:02
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fluke wrote:
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


B,E - out for using "like" to show example
C- incorrectly uses "substitutions" instead of "substitutes" -- you can use something as substitute, not substitution.
D- "while if" is awkward. while also suggests that two actions are happening together, which is not the case here.

Ans: "A"


Hey Fluke,

Does isnt 'their' in A ambiguios ?
Does their refer to fertilizers or productivity ?? How do we know ?
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New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:23
Their cannot logically refer to anything other than fertilisers; it cannot denote productivity, becos productivity is singular and their is plural; it cannot point to parts of the world,as no one can materially increase parts of the world and leave alone use them to create problems
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New post 31 Jul 2013, 17:19
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain why option C and D is incorrect! Thanks


Hi fozzy.

Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
Correct. The use of "their" is quite ambiguous, so I don't think this sentence sounds smoothly. A, however is the best among all options.

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
Wrong.
- "like" is incorrect, like = similar to. However, wee need examples here, thus "such as" is appropriate.
- We're talking about "fertilizers" (plural) ==> "it" is wrong.

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
Wrong.
- Parallelism: The structure of C is: whereas the use of X has greatly expanded........, if X are used, and if ......
==> in order to make a sentence parallel, the structure should be: whereas the use of X greatly expanded......, in increase in their use.......
==> "the use of X" || "their use"
- Meaning: "an increase in the use of synthetic fertilizers" DIFFERS from "the fertilizers are used increasingly"
For example:
(1) The increase in the use of computers ==> computers become more popular, so many people use them. (horizontal)
(2) The Computers are used increasingly ==> These particular computers are exploited (vertical)

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
Wrong.
- Modifier problem: "if substituted for more ..., this substitution may accelerate .........." Verb-ed modifier + COMMA ==> ALWAYS modify subject. The subject of the second part is "this substitution" ==> The meaning will be: if substitution are substituted for more...... ==> Does not make sense at all.
- "While" is subordinating conjunction ==> does not match the overall meaning of the structure. Coordinating conjunction "and" is more appropriate.

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
Wrong.
- "like" is wrong ==> "such as" should be correct.
- "while" changes meaning. ==> "and" should be correct

Hope it helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Jul 2015, 23:17
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

The structure is Whereas X, Y -> X and Y should be parallel and should be clauses.

(A) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers -> Looks good. this option is parallel -> whereas the use of X, an increases in their use of Y

(B) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

(C) if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers -> what is used?
The subject of the sentence is ellipsed. So we can repeat that subject as
if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they do X, and if these fertilizers are used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they do Y .
Instead of that, we can use "and if these fertilizers are substituted for more traditional fertilizers, they do Y" -> We can eliminate this option based on redundancy.


(D) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

while is used as but for contrast.
what is substituted?
Since we have a "while", we can repeat the subject which is "the increased usage of these fertilizers substituted for more traditional Fertilizers" -> Wrong sense.
this is pronoun and cannot refer to the clause.


(E) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
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Originally posted by kinjiGC on 28 May 2015, 21:17.
Last edited by kinjiGC on 17 Jul 2015, 23:17, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 18 Feb 2016, 00:05
sananoor wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers



Hi,
what does this Q tests us on;-
1) such as vs like
such as is used to give examples and like to show similarity..
here 'such as' is appropriate


2) Contrast:-
usage of 'whereas' points towards CONTRAST between two clauses..

3) parallelism..
the two clauses in the second part of teh sentence should be parallel and so 'and' should be used to join them..
an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion

4) 'comma' preceding 'and'..
As 'and' is joining two independent clauses, it should be preceded by 'comma'..


ONLY A is left..
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New post 18 Feb 2016, 04:30
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B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

1. This option is incorrect not because it is wordy but because, as the previous post points out, LIKE cannot be used in the GMAT to exemplify. SUCH AS must be used for that purpose. LIKE has to to compare, but here no comparison is intended between environmental problems and water pollution.

2. The other reason that this option is incorrect is that the final IT has no logical antecedent. Grammatically speaking, IT would have to refer to POLLUTION or to INCREASE. Logically speaking, however, it cannot refer to either. This is because IT is preceded here by a clause of condition: if substituted for more traditional fertilizers. (In other words, if it is substituted for more traditional fertilizers.) This clause determines the matter: it says that the thing that IT refers to could be substituted for more traditional fertilizers. Clearly, POLLUTION could not be substituted for more traditional fertilizers, because it is not a fertilizer, and INCREASE could not be substituted for more traditional fertilizers for the same reason. Therefore, the use of IT makes no sense.

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 13:21
Hello,

Can reason why C is wrong. I eliminated it because it seemed wordy to me compared to other option. Rest it seems fine.

Am i right.

Answer it or give kudos... :punk


sananoor wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
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New post 25 Feb 2016, 07:43
1988achilles wrote:
Hello,

Can reason why C is wrong. I eliminated it because it seemed wordy to me compared to other option. Rest it seems fine.

Am i right.

Answer it or give kudos... :punk




The structure of the sentence is: Whereas A does xxx, if P, C does yyy, and if Q, C does zzz, if Q.

Putting the if clauses before the result clauses makes the sentence difficult to understand.

The better structure is: Whereas A does xxx, C does yyy, if P and C does zzz, if Q .

Moreover the comparison is faulty.

Here A is compared to C, A = the use of fertilizers and C = they (the fertilizers).
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New post 29 Feb 2016, 11:22
The present tense in the clause of condition (the IF clause) may be followed by a form of the future tense in the clause of result. But it may also be followed by a form of the present tense. Both forms are equally correct from the grammatical point of view, and the criterion for using one or the other is the intention and time-reference of the sentence.

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New post 03 Jun 2017, 07:53
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

(A) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

(B) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

(C) if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

(D) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

(E) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

Does the pronoun "their" refer to "synthetic fertilizers" or "many parts of the world"?
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New post 04 Jun 2017, 04:08
hazelnut wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

(A) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

(B) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

(C) if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

(D) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

(E) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

Does the pronoun "their" refer to "synthetic fertilizers" or "many parts of the world"?


The pronoun "their" refers to "synthetic fertilizers ". "Use of many parts of the world" does not make sense.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult   [#permalink] 04 Jun 2017, 04:08

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