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According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de

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According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Aug 2018, 01:50
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A
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Question Stats:

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According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues derived from taxation equaled nearly 21% of the GDP in 2000, significantly more than they did in 2010.


(A) more than they did

(B) more than it did

(C) more than they were

(D) higher than

(E) higher than they were



Source: optimusprep

Originally posted by mmelendez on 10 Nov 2015, 14:10.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Aug 2018, 01:50, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2015, 18:16
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According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues derived from taxation equaled nearly 21% of the GDP in 2000, significantly more than they did in 2010.


(A)more than they did
(B)more than it did
(C)more than they were
(D)higher than
(E) higher than they were


if you compare 2 different things, you use A is Higher than B
On the following account, we can eliminate D and E.

Comparison is between FR in 2000 and FR in 2010. They correctly refers to the noun revenues. It is incorrect, since it is in singular form -> B eliminated.
Between A and C, A is better because the comparing verb is "equaled" and not "were equaling". The latter one would have made C correct.
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2015, 20:51
1) Plural subject 'federal revenues', therefore 'They'
2) Verb is 'equaled', which is parallel to 'did'

Hence A.

Can someone please elucidate the usage of More vs Higher ?
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2015, 20:55
arhumsid wrote:
1) Plural subject 'federal revenues', therefore 'They'
2) Verb is 'equaled', which is parallel to 'did'

Hence A.

Can someone please elucidate the usage of More vs Higher ?



I will give official explanation shortly, as well as some information. On the same token, please continue discussing and answering.

I will also post new questions everyday, mostly 700 level ones.
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2015, 03:16
The question tests pronouns and parallelism.

The noun to be compared here is "revenues", which clearly is plural - cross off B. To use the correct parallelism, we should follow the verb tense from the first part of the sentence - answer A.

Regarding the question "more" vs. "higher". We could also use higher here, but then the sentence would need to be rephrased, i.e. federal revenues derived from taxation were higher in 2000 than [they were] in 2010.

My 2 cents.

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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2015, 20:22
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mmelendez wrote:
arhumsid wrote:
1) Plural subject 'federal revenues', therefore 'They'
2) Verb is 'equaled', which is parallel to 'did'

Hence A.

Can someone please elucidate the usage of More vs Higher ?



I will give official explanation shortly, as well as some information. On the same token, please continue discussing and answering.

I will also post new questions everyday, mostly 700 level ones.


Hi mmelendez,

If you some info on the usage of more vs higher, can u please explain ?

Thanks!
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2015, 07:07
1
Here is the explanation

The best way to solve this sentence is through removing some of the additional information that it provides as a means to get to its core. Therefore, take out -nearly 21% of the GDP in 2000- when reading the possible responses. This will make it clear that we need to say, “federal revenues equaled more than they equaled” or “federal revenues equaled more than they did.”

(A) Correct.
(B) Singular pronoun “it” does not agree with the plural referent “revenues”
(C) “They were” implies “were equaling,” but since “equaling” is nowhere in the sentence it cannot be implied.
(D) “Higher” cannot be used to describe “equaled,” instead the adverb more should be used.

Parallelism: in order to maintain parallel structure, both sides of the comparison need to be written in the same way (see above). The correct answer needs to say “than they did”

(E) “Higher” cannot be used to describe “equaled,” instead the adverb more should be used.

“They were” implies “were equaling,” but since “equaling” is nowhere in the sentence it cannot be implied.

The correct answer is A


i hope this helps in clarifying any doubt
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2015, 11:29
mmelendez, I disagree with your explanation on why option D is wrong. IMO, for economic quantities, it's perfectly OK to use higher for an increase.

D would have been correct if it reads: Higher than they did

Can an expert comments on this?
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 19:58
Need did for equaled
So answer is D.
Federal revenues - they .
Percentages can either be more than or higher than.
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Re: According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2018, 01:45
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hazelnut , generis , daagh

The OA provided seems incorrect. D seems perfectly fine. Any comments?
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According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues de  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2018, 22:05
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mmelendez wrote:
According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues derived from taxation equaled nearly 21% of the GDP in 2000, significantly more than they did in 2010.


(A) more than they did

(B) more than it did

(C) more than they were

(D) higher than

(E) higher than they were

Prateek176 wrote:
hazelnut , generis , daagh

The OA provided seems incorrect. D seems perfectly fine. Any comments?

Prateek176 , the OA is correct.

I can understand how you might think that D were correct.

I suspect that some people think that the word to be modified by more or higher is "revenues" -- or that the phrase to be modified is "21% of GDP."

The belief is not out of left field. Revenues can be "higher." Percentages can be higher.

But D and E get the adverb wrong. We had better be certain we have the right adverb before we pick an option with as much ellipsis as D contains.

The word being modified is not revenues.
The word being modified is equaled.

Strip the sentence down, as the OE suggests. OE is decent.
Not great, but decent.

According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, federal revenues derived from taxation equaled nearly 21% of the GDP in 2000, significantly more than they didin 2010

Correct: Xs equaled more in 2000 than Xs equaled in 2010.
Correct: Xs equaled more in 2000 than Xs did in 2010.

Now try the sentence with "higher."
-- Xs equaled higher than Xs equaled in 2010. (OUCH.)

Or try a synonym. Substitute "totaled" for "equaled." The adverb "more" may be easier to see.

-- Xs totaled more in 2000 than Xs totaled in 2010.
-- Xs totaled higher in 2000 than Xs totaled in 2010. (OUCH.)

Last one. Substitute "amounted to" (added up to).

--Xs amounted to more in 2000 than Xs amounted to in 2010.
--Xs amounted to higher in 2000 than Xs amounted to in 2010. (OUCH.)

"Higher" does not work as an adverb with "equaled." If you got tempted by "higher," I would bet long money that the (improper) focus was "revenues."

MORE vs HIGHER
1. "Higher" is not as predictable as "more."

We can have higher rates, higher temperatures, higher prices, etc.

By contrast, more can be used with almost all countable and uncountable nouns.
When in doubt, choose more.

That suggestion is not ironclad.
We do NOT say
more temperature (greater), more amount (usually greater), more percentage (usually higher), more price (higher)

2) That is, "higher" is, as mikemcgarry asserts, "more idiomatic" (than more/less and more/fewer):
Quote:
Sometimes we have occasion to talk about either pure mathematical number (i.e. a counted number) or real-world quantities that are numbers — the price of something, the volume of something, the temperature of something, etc. Here, things are far more idiomatic. For pure numbers, counts, we use “greater than” and “less than“. For some quantities, such as price and temperature, we speak of “higher than” and “lower than“. For other, having to do with size, we speak of “larger than” and “smaller than“.

Comparative and Quantitative Idioms, here.
To get familiar with those idiomatic constructions, watch how official questions use more, greater, higher, less, fewer, lower, etc. Further, read financial stories from top-notch journals.

3) I have not seen an official question that pits higher against more, and if a few questions exist, I suspect that the higher/more issue is not the only decision point.

4) The correct adverb is "more," which we can guess from synonyms.
If an the way an adverb is used is unfamiliar, try similar verbs with the adverb.

5) Higher?
As an adverb, higher typically functions in the realms of physical space, rank, sound, and rates.

The bird flew higher when the cat arrived.
She ranked higher than he on the corporate ladder.
Demand-pull and cost-push inflation drove prices higher.
(Investopedia, Accessed August 11, 2018)
Her voice was pitched higher than her sister's.

Percentage of revenue is an uncountable noun. "Higher" is immediately suspect, even though ultimately the verb is at issue.

In fact, although the adverb has nothing to do with the noun, frequently the noun can give you a hint about the verb. Temperatures, for example, do not "equal" different numbers at different times. Temperatures "hit" or "are" a certain number at a certain time.

Stripping the sentence makes it clearer that the verb "equaled" is the target of the descriptor.

Takeaway: Strip away what we do not need. There a lot of yap yap yap in this question.

Cover the basics, every single time. What is the subject? What is the verb?

The subject is revenues, the verb is equaled, and the comparison is "Revenues equaled more in 2000 than they did in 2010."

Option A is correct.

I hope that helps! :-)

****
For people who asked for an analysis of more vs. higher: Part of the analysis is above.
I have given you more information with the overview below.

If you have read a decent bit of good prose, your reaction to my insertion of "higher" in the sentence (above) should have been something along the lines of "ouch."

There are not hard and fast rules for every single detail, including details such as "more" and "higher" as adjectives and adverbs.

You have to read.
If articles about investment bore you, read about something that does not bore you.

OVERVIEW - Nouns, comparisons, and quantifiers

Generally: countable/uncountable?
Revenue is uncountable. Revenue is like money. To decide , ask
How many revenue? (countable) NO
vs.
How much revenue? (uncountable) YES

Uncountable nouns get MORE/LESS, not MORE/FEWER
Correct: He finished less work than she.
WRONG: He finished fewer work than she.

• Uncountable noun - MORE/LESS
More love, more wine, more thought, more laugher
Less hate, less poison, less water, less fear

• Countable noun - MORE/FEWER
More cherries, more fairy tales, more ounces
Fewer bullies, fewer Tweets (please!), fewer crypto-fascists

• A noun that IS a number - from mikemcgarry here, who describes this category well.
Quote:
The question arises: when do we use “greater” rather than “more”? We use “greater” when the noun in question is a number. We can count the number of tulips, but a tulip itself is not a number. Some examples of nouns that are themselves numbers are: percent, interest rate, population, volume, distance, price, cost, and number. []. . .The area of Georgia is greater than that of Pennsylvania.


Percents / Percentages of nouns?

• A numerical percent of a countable noun is similarly countable

Correct: Fewer than two percent of all mass shootings are committed by women. Men commit 98 percent of mass shootings. from TIME magazine, accessed August 11, 2018
Correct: More than 50 percent of human beings have brown-colored eyes.

• A specified numerical percent of an UNcountable noun is ALSO uncountable
Correct: Less than one percent of the water on our planet is available for human use and consumption.
WRONG: Fewer than 10 percent of the water was drained from the swamp.

Correct: Just a little more than 50 percent of our empathic capacities are genetically inherited, and the remainder we can learn.
WRONG: The average man has 30 percent greater blood than the average woman.

The above is a start. Here are some resources from which to learn more:

The Best of the Best Verbal Resources, Guides, Question Banks, and Strategies on GMAT Club as of April 2018 . In that fantastic post, you can select among a few options.

If you choose "Sentence Correction," you will be redirected to this page of SC topics .
One of those topics is Comparisons in Sentence Correction, here

Finally, here again is Mike McGarry's post about comparative and quantitative idioms such as "More X than Y."
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