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# Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly

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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 03:03
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64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Zarrolou on 31 Jul 2013, 03:34, edited 2 times in total.
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17 May 2008, 04:24
A can actually plug in all the miss out gaps pretty comfortably in this case....

one rule:since it is examples so use of such as is applicable....so this eliminates B and E....

now comes the sheer understand and phrasing of question

in choice C,"if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they....."-----looks awkward

in choice D----"while if substituted for more....."----makes it awkward

cheers!
bepositive
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17 May 2008, 18:57
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bepositive wrote:
one rule:since it is examples so use of such as is applicable....so this eliminates B and E....

Nice! I kept it in my log. Thanks!

bepositive wrote:
in choice C,"if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they....."-----looks awkward

I chose C as correct b/c I find no error with "they". Unfortunately C is not OA

Thanks bepositive!
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17 May 2008, 20:04
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D looks good.
C -The second 'they' is confusing. (fertilizers/substitutions/traditional fertilizers ?)
Between A & D.
'an increase in their use' vs 'the increased usage'
increased usage of fertilizer = You used more fertilizer.
increase in fertilizer's use = we are not using more, but the output / quality of fertilizer is more.
fertilizer's use is increased. Fertilizer is giving more output.

For example: An increase in cell phone's use VS the increased usage of cell phone
increase in cell phone's use = there are more features etc.
Usage of cell phone = you know what I mean..

I may be wrong, but for lack of words thats all I can come up with for now.
Thats how I eliminated A.
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18 May 2008, 01:45
hey
i m a bit confused..

does the term "has greatly increased" in d above ques and the term "has increased" fall in
d same category of PRESENT PERFECT?

I KNOW D 2nd ONE DOES..

I WANT 2 KNOW IF "HAS/HAVE X + PAST PARTICIPLE "
IS ALSO CONSIDERED PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.

THX
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18 May 2008, 15:53
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B and E are out because of "like". A,C and D remain.

C and D sound wordy by using "if". A is concise and should be the right choice.
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22 May 2008, 03:36
Á has problem with THEIR! Need someone explain about it.

C: ... IF these fertilizers are used increasingly, they CAN create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they MAY...

If x happen, y will happen.

C is not the best answer.
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23 May 2008, 13:19
A. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.
-the 2nd 'their' may be confusing - problems vs fertilizers
- the use of synthetic fertilizers...an increase in their use - not parallel

C. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.
- we probably need 'but' to connect two clauses here.
- Use of 'they' may be confusing.

D. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

Among A, C and D, I would have gone with D.
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23 May 2008, 14:00
the problem with D is not that it is awkward but it has modifier problem.
while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

Instead of this substitution the next clause should have started with
fertilizers.

A is not the best sounding option but it is lesser of all the evil.
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23 May 2008, 18:55
OA is A
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26 May 2008, 11:35
lexis wrote:
Á has problem with THEIR! Need someone explain about it.

C: ... IF these fertilizers are used increasingly, they CAN create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they MAY...

If x happen, y will happen.

C is not the best answer.

A is the best choice among others.
Hic, NO one knows?
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26 May 2008, 12:48
tough and a good question

i chose D at first but now confirm to A as an answer because of the really nice explanations given herein above

thanks
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27 Apr 2010, 03:17
This one is really tough as the OA does not look very good but only the lesser of all evils.

one top of the above, is D a run-on sentence? Also, is it grammatically correct to insert conditional clauses in a longer sentence just like option C?
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20 Mar 2011, 14:42
Could anybody explain why "their" in A is not ambigous?

For me, it can refer to both fertilizers and parts of the world.

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16 Jun 2011, 21:39
noboru wrote:
Could anybody explain why "their" in A is not ambigous?

For me, it can refer to both fertilizers and parts of the world.

ambiguous is not a crucial factor to eliminate options in sc especially when there is only one meaningful modifier and others possibilities are nonsense."their" here definitely modifies for "syns. fertilizers". Somebobdy may argue that 'their" may refer to "parts of the world" but the later posibility is absurb in meaning.
I think it is D which is wrong in dangling modifier. Look: (D) said:
" while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution..." --> what is substituted here?? "Fertilizers" or "this substitution"?
I hope my explanation can help
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22 Jun 2011, 03:08
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

This is little odd question as each and every alternate looks little odd so elimination approach is the best way to go. My approach is as below:
Remove all "like" used for example - B & E are out; If usage not required so C is out, D also but I ponder little bit more on this against A
Since first clause subject is use so it seems ok to continue with option D "the increased usage of these fertilizers" and these fertilizers is more clear than their

But when I double checked I found more clarity with A , "their" seems to directly matching with only plural noun - fertilizers.. So I go with A
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22 Jun 2011, 05:31
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sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B,E - out for using "like" to show example
C- incorrectly uses "substitutions" instead of "substitutes" -- you can use something as substitute, not substitution.
D- "while if" is awkward. while also suggests that two actions are happening together, which is not the case here.

Ans: "A"
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22 Jun 2011, 10:56
In option C, the second "if" doesn't have a subject.
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28 Jun 2011, 04:21
the antecedent for their in A is the synthetic fertilizers since their is a possesive pronoun it can refer back to the subject in propositional phrase .
May be if it was some other pronoun(non possesive) it would be wrong.
Can some one pls confirm my understanding
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12 Nov 2011, 23:02
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fluke wrote:
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B,E - out for using "like" to show example
C- incorrectly uses "substitutions" instead of "substitutes" -- you can use something as substitute, not substitution.
D- "while if" is awkward. while also suggests that two actions are happening together, which is not the case here.

Ans: "A"

Hey Fluke,

Does isnt 'their' in A ambiguios ?
Does their refer to fertilizers or productivity ?? How do we know ?
Re: SC.GmPrep. fertilizers   [#permalink] 12 Nov 2011, 23:02

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