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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult

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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Jun 2017, 06:44
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A
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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

(A) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

(B) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

(C) if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

(D) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

(E) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

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Originally posted by sondenso on 17 May 2008, 03:03.
Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Jun 2017, 06:44, edited 3 times in total.
Added OA.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2011, 15:46
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Hey Noburu,

Pronoun ambiguity is one of those irritating things that can sometimes be tolerated, depending on the circumstances. More often than not, a case in which pronoun ambiguity is tolerated has strong structural clues that point to the intended antecedent. Here "of synthetic fertilizers" is specifying a type of use, so even though the structure shifts slightly, the fact that the word "use" occurs again in the sentence points to "synthetic fertilizers" (the thing that was used in the first part of the sentence. It's not ideal, but that happens sometimes). In general, when I go through splits I try to save pronoun ambiguity for a later sweep.

As mentioned by the above posters, the like/such as split is a concrete error that is irrefutable by GMAT standards, so B and E are out.

That leaves A, C, and D.

Choice (C)
Whenever something has lots of modifiers or clauses, try to look at the underlying structure of the sentence. What is the skeleton here?

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity,
...if these fertilizers are used...they can create problems
...and if used....they may accelerate

Structurally, when we see "whereas" we *require* what follows to have a certain form-- "Whereas A does B, C does D"---dependent clause-comma-independent clause. But, as gmattiger points out above, we have a dependent clause (if these fertilizers are used) where we need that independent clause ("C does B"). C is out.


Choice (D)--
The beginning of choice D may at first glance appear more parallel to the non-underlined portion of the sentence than the beginning of choice A.

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity...the increased USAGE (of these fertilizers)....can create problems

...BUT the sentence keeps going! The clause beginning with "while if substituted" clearly *means* "if [synthetic fertilizers are] substituted, but nowhere in the sentence has "synthetic fertilizer" been the SUBJECT of a verb. That phrase only appears as a modifier (in the nonunderlined portion). D has a definable, structural grammar issue--so this choice is out.

Choice (A)
While A has potential pronoun ambiguity, the structural flaws present in the other choices have been weeded out:

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity,...an increase (in their use) can create problems...AND their substitution....may accelerate deterioration and erosion.

The structural requirements of "Whereas A does B, C does D" are fulfilled. And the final independent clause (about substitution accelerating deterioration) is appropriately tagged on with a conjunction. So we can tolerate the potential pronoun ambiguity here.

Remember always to go from wrong to right, and that certain things are "more wrong" than others. Hope this helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2008, 04:24
A can actually plug in all the miss out gaps pretty comfortably in this case....

one rule:since it is examples so use of such as is applicable....so this eliminates B and E....

now comes the sheer understand and phrasing of question

in choice C,"if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they....."-----looks awkward

in choice D----"while if substituted for more....."----makes it awkward

so A...please confirm..

cheers!
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2008, 18:57
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bepositive wrote:
one rule:since it is examples so use of such as is applicable....so this eliminates B and E....


Nice! I kept it in my log. Thanks!

bepositive wrote:
in choice C,"if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they....."-----looks awkward


I chose C as correct b/c I find no error with "they". Unfortunately C is not OA

Thanks bepositive!
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2008, 20:04
1
D looks good.
C -The second 'they' is confusing. (fertilizers/substitutions/traditional fertilizers ?)
Between A & D.
'an increase in their use' vs 'the increased usage'
increased usage of fertilizer = You used more fertilizer.
increase in fertilizer's use = we are not using more, but the output / quality of fertilizer is more.
fertilizer's use is increased. Fertilizer is giving more output.

For example: An increase in cell phone's use VS the increased usage of cell phone
increase in cell phone's use = there are more features etc.
Usage of cell phone = you know what I mean..

I may be wrong, but for lack of words thats all I can come up with for now.
Thats how I eliminated A.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2008, 01:45
hey
i m a bit confused..

does the term "has greatly increased" in d above ques and the term "has increased" fall in
d same category of PRESENT PERFECT?

I KNOW D 2nd ONE DOES..

I WANT 2 KNOW IF "HAS/HAVE X + PAST PARTICIPLE "
IS ALSO CONSIDERED PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.

THX
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2008, 15:53
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


B and E are out because of "like". A,C and D remain.

C and D sound wordy by using "if". A is concise and should be the right choice.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2008, 03:36
Á has problem with THEIR! Need someone explain about it.

C: ... IF these fertilizers are used increasingly, they CAN create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they MAY...

If x happen, y will happen.

C is not the best answer.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2008, 13:19
A. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.
-the 2nd 'their' may be confusing - problems vs fertilizers
- the use of synthetic fertilizers...an increase in their use - not parallel

C. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.
- we probably need 'but' to connect two clauses here.
- Use of 'they' may be confusing.


D. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

Among A, C and D, I would have gone with D.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2008, 14:00
the problem with D is not that it is awkward but it has modifier problem.
while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

Instead of this substitution the next clause should have started with
fertilizers.

A is not the best sounding option but it is lesser of all the evil.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2008, 11:35
lexis wrote:
Á has problem with THEIR! Need someone explain about it.

C: ... IF these fertilizers are used increasingly, they CAN create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they MAY...

If x happen, y will happen.

C is not the best answer.


A is the best choice among others.
However, I confuse "THEIR" in A. someone tell about "THEIR" please!
Hic, NO one knows? :(
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2008, 12:48
tough and a good question

i chose D at first but now confirm to A as an answer because of the really nice explanations given herein above

thanks
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 12:28
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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 12:36
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


A. Best
B. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
C. use of "IF" is not correct as there are two dependednt clasues.
D. Run-on.
E. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 12:45
GMAT TIGER wrote:
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


A. Best
B. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
C. use of "IF" is not correct as there are two dependednt clasues.
D. Run-on.
E. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.


Could you explain the rule with two dependent clauses? I thought C could be correct because it correctly uses "if" in a "if...then" statement.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 13:35
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lionheart187 wrote:
GMAT TIGER wrote:
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers


A. Best
B. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.
C. use of "IF" is not correct as there are two dependednt clasues.
D. Run-on.
E. Not "LIKE" but "SUCH AS" is preferred.


Could you explain the rule with two dependent clauses? I thought C could be correct because it correctly uses "if" in a "if...then" statement.


"Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world", "if these fertilizers are used increasingly, ....................".

both arre dependent clauses. any clause starts with if, although, however, while, where as, though, even though etc. is dependent clause.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 13:47
lionheart187 wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers



A seems to be the best choice because of "like vs such as"

I would prefer that the correct choice to be a combo of A and E

the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 14:03
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

'A' seems the best choice.
IMO 'A'
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2010, 03:17
This one is really tough as the OA does not look very good but only the lesser of all evils.

one top of the above, is D a run-on sentence? Also, is it grammatically correct to insert conditional clauses in a longer sentence just like option C?
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2011, 14:42
Could anybody explain why "their" in A is not ambigous?

For me, it can refer to both fertilizers and parts of the world.

Many thanks in advance.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult   [#permalink] 20 Mar 2011, 14:42

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