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# Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives

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07 Aug 2019, 21:11
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Project SC Butler: Day 148 Sentence Correction (SC1)

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

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07 Aug 2019, 21:13
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 148 Sentence Correction (SC1)

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creatures

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

This question is a good reminder to check the non-underlined portion of the sentence carefully.

This question is also a good reminder that Option A does not determine the intended meaning of the sentence.

• Meaning?

First, strip the sentence.
(I'm working with incorrect option A.)
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be[???] uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

The stripped sentence:
The vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains low levels of oxygen . . . [???] uninhabitable by most other sea creatures].

Okay, what is uninhabitable by most other sea creatures? The "twilight zone."

Meaning

The vampire squid lives in a twilight zone. The twilight zone contains low levels of oxygen. The twilight zone cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures.

How and whether to connect the second and third sentences will be an issue.
We do not know whether the low levels of oxygen cause the unsuitability of environment for most other sea creatures. (Maybe the twilight zone is too cold or exerts too much pressure because it is too deep.)
The options will tell us.

• What we are looking for

We need an option that makes the twilight zone both low in levels of oxygen and uninhabitable by other sea creatures. That option may or may not establish a causal connection, but we should focus on and look for the two adjectivial phrases that describe the twilight zone:
-- Adjective phrase #1: that contains low levels of dissolved oxygen
-- Adjective phrase #2: uninhabitable by other sea creatures or cannot be inhabited by other sea creature

These adjective phrases must somehow be connected properly to the twilight zone.

THE PROMPT

Quote:
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

THE OPTIONS

Quote:
(A) Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

such as to be is not idiomatic. We can say so as to be, because "so as" must be followed by an infinitive. (Careful, though. Very few correct answers use "so as.")

Quote:
(B) Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures.

• in general, be very wary of such that if the words are together
I cannot find even one official SC question in which "such that" (the two words together) is correct.
Not one. (I am happy to stand corrected.)

In the footnote you will find six official questions with at least one option that uses "such that." Some questions have two options with "such that."

These six are among the very few I have found that test "such that" at all. (I think I have seen eight official questions with such that in the answer choices.)
• you will see such that frequently in Quant. Quant is not SC.
• this phrase is commonly used. It is written all over the forum. As far as I can tell after scouring official questions , "such that" is not used in SC on the GMAT.
• in a few correct official answers, the words such and that are separated by other words.
Used in that way, the construction is idiomatic: such is an intensifier of an adjective or noun.
The typical construction is
[SUCH + adjective + noun + THAT]
-- He was such a grouchy professor that he intimidated students.
Possible but highly unlikely: [SUCH + noun + THAT]
-- The conversation was such a delight that I did not want it to end.

• finally, uninhabitable to? Not great

Quote:
(C) Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures.

• the modifier is misplaced
that cannot be inhabited should modify a twilight zone
that cannot be inhabited incorrectly follows oxygen.
This sentence nonsensically implies that most other sea creatures are unable to inhabit oxygen.

Quote:
(D) Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates.

• the plural pronoun them does not agree with its singular referent, the twilight zone
• making needs a comma before it so that it does not modify oxygen.
comma + making would change the participle (verbING) into an adverbial modifier of the whole clause rather than a modifier of oxygen

Quote:
(E) Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures.

• Spot on.
that contains . . . and that cannot be inhabited are the two adjectivial modifiers we need in order to describe the twilight zone

rvarora , 5143kny , Ajiteshmathur , akashjai , EpilepticLearner , pielkay , welcome to SC Butler.
(If I have welcomed you before, then you get two welcomes.)

This question is hard, no doubt. I like the fact that it challenges us to be careful about what we assume.
Is option E logical? Yes. Is it grammatical? Yes.
We cannot assume that low levels of dissolved oxygen make the twilight zone uninhabitable for most other sea creatures.
It's a fair assumption, but not a necessary one.*

pielkay , well done. Although you did not post before the OA was revealed, you helped and your explanation is very good.

Often I give kudos for answers that are well-reasoned but incorrect.
On this question, I think it is more fair to award kudos to pielkay for helping as well as for a very good explanation. EDIT: kudos also to pzgupta for helping.

I will name everyone because I am posting the OE later than usual: J2S2019 , Sourav700 , Annet1524 , Xylan , Ajiteshmathur , pzgupta .

(Just for the record . . I cannot always post OEs at the 24 hour mark. I suppose I could post crappy OEs of about 4 lines. Not my style. And, I hope, not what you want.)

I am glad to have all of your posts. Have a great weekend.

**I cannot find ANY official questions in which the phrase "such that" is correct.
SPOILER ALERT: If you click on these links to official questions, you will know at least one incorrect answer.
OFFICIAL QUESTIONS in which such that is an option but not the correct answer.
HERE, #1
HERE, #2
HERE, #3
HERE, #4
HERE, #5
HERE, #6

*For an official question in which cause and result are joined by AND, see THIS OFFICIAL QUESTION.
My post on that topic is HERE.
##### General Discussion
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Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2019, 21:45
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Going with the meaning of the sentence
It is because low levels of oxygen that the zone is uninhabitable
So it is the case of cause and effect and should be followed by verb -ing form

Only one option has it - option D

For the case of POE

Eliminate
B in that “that” refers to oxygen which is anyway uninhabitable

E because it tries to convey that -
Vampire swuid lives in twilight zone and the zone is ....” making both the clauses as two separate entities while the later one is an effect of something

B and A because both of them carry a tone of intent, which, clearly is not what the sentence would intend to convey
(assuming nature did not make this question but the elements of it did)

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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2019, 21:55
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures -- such isn't needed

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures--> corrrect

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates -- them who?

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2019, 22:13
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures -- such as is used to give examples. INCORRECT

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures - Only one which clearly conveys that the dissolved oxygen is what is making the zone inhabitable. CORRECT

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures -- twilight zone that... that... INCORRECT

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates -- antecedent for them is ambiguous - INCORRECT

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures -- the sentence wants to convey that the zone is inhabitable because of low levels of oxygen. This option doesn't show the cause and effect. INCORRECT
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2019, 22:31
I would also go with Option D.

pzgupta wrote:
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures -- such as is used to give examples. INCORRECT

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures - Only one which clearly conveys that the dissolved oxygen is what is making the zone inhabitable. CORRECT

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures -- twilight zone that... that... INCORRECT

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates -- antecedent for them is ambiguous - INCORRECT

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures -- the sentence wants to convey that the zone is inhabitable because of low levels of oxygen. This option doesn't show the cause and effect. INCORRECT

Here, Option B changes the intended meaning of the sentence. We need it to point to the Twilight Zone.
Pronoun 'THEM' in Option D is not ambiguous. It is referring to the Twilight Zone which is uninhabitable.
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2019, 22:39
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akashjai wrote:
I would also go with Option D.

pzgupta wrote:
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures -- such as is used to give examples. INCORRECT

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures - Only one which clearly conveys that the dissolved oxygen is what is making the zone inhabitable. CORRECT

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures -- twilight zone that... that... INCORRECT

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates -- antecedent for them is ambiguous - INCORRECT

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures -- the sentence wants to convey that the zone is inhabitable because of low levels of oxygen. This option doesn't show the cause and effect. INCORRECT

Here, Option B changes the intended meaning of the sentence. We need it to point to the Twilight Zone.
Pronoun 'THEM' in Option D is not ambiguous. It is referring to the Twilight Zone which is uninhabitable.

Twilight zone is singular. Them cannot refer to it.
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2019, 23:41
1
Hey, this is my first time posting here in SC butler, experts please correct me if I am wrong.

The original statement incorrectly uses "such as to be.. ". Thus we move further with other answer choices.

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures. Wrong- As mentioned above, the use of "such as" is incorrect out here.

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures Correct - The use of "such that it" makes logical sense and connects the sentence well. The "it" refers to singular subject "twilight zone".

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures Wrong- It illogically implies that the "dissolved oxygen" cannot be inhabited.

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates. Wrong - "them" in the sentences concedes a pronoun ambiguity error. The subject is singular "twilight zone"

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures. Wrong- I think this a good deception as the parallelism works well."that contains extremely low levels of ...and that cannot be inhabited". Nice. But wait, the meaning is all distorted with this option. The original sentence seems to draw a cause and effect relationship. Because the levels of oxygen are low, the twilight zone cannot be inhabited by other sea creature. The use of "perfect parallelism" here distorts the meaning of the sentence and presents the two as two separate facts. Hence this option is out.

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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2019, 02:35
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 148 Sentence Correction (SC1)

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

Sentence Structure
Subject - Verb
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans,
the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone
that( twilight zone) contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen
such that it( twilight zone) is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures.

Issues:
The term 'such as' is used to elicit examples.
A Incorrect usage of the term 'such as'

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures
Incorrect usage of the term 'such as'

B) such that it( twilight zone) is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures
X such that Y: This expression is used to signify the extent of an activity/deed.
Ex:
The Shaolin Ninjas are enormously swift and adept such that their movements are easy to miss for a common man.
B is the winner!

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures
Meaning issue: that ---maps to---> oxygen/extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen.
Oxygen CANNOT be inhabited by most other sea creatures

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates
Meaning issue: making them ---maps to---> oxygen/extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen.
Oxygen is making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures
Grammatically correct and parallel. Now, it became interesting!
However, it LACKS the cause-effect scenario as intended in the original sentence.
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Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2019, 02:58
Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures - difficult and strange

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures - it = twilight zone - correct answer

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures - modifies oxygen - wrong

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates - them is wrong

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures- strange meaning - wrong
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2019, 04:37
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 148 Sentence Correction (SC1)

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures ——> such as is used to present examples, not the case here, so eliminate A.

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures— the sentence refers to the the twilight zone, which is uninhabitable for some reason. The only possible antecedent for it could be the twilight zone. Hold B for now.

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures ——> that refers to oxygen

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates —— > them has problems with pronoun agreement, even if we assume it referred to the logically correct twilight zone in question.

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

Same as C

B seems to be the best option here. Winner by POE!

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Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Aug 2019, 02:53
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 148 Sentence Correction (SC1)

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures
B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures
C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures
D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates
E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

A) "such as to be" unidiomatic and "such as" is used to introduce examples… which is not the case; also, unpara.
B) "such that it is" what is "it" ref to, "the squid" or "the zone", ambig; also, unpara.
C) "cannot be inhabited" unintended meaning; "that" ref to "…oxygen" also unintended; also, unpara.
D) "them" is plural, "zone" is singular, sva; also, unpara.

Answer (E): "zone that contains… and [zone] that cannot be…".

Originally posted by exc4libur on 08 Aug 2019, 05:32.
Last edited by exc4libur on 09 Aug 2019, 02:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2019, 07:40

Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures - "Such as" is generally used to introduce examples & going by the meaning of the sentence, usage of "such as" is incorrect here. - Discard

B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures - This option is correct - "it" is having clear antecedent as "low levels of dissolved oxygen" & this option fits perfectly with the context of the sentence.

C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures - with restrictive clauses, we use "that", now the clear meaning issue in this sentence is that here "that" is referring back to "dissolved oxygen....that cannot be inhabited..." this is not true - Incorrect

D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creates - "them" as a plural pronoun does not fits with singular subject "twilight zone" - Incorrect

E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures - Causation is not properly portrayed here; the low level of oxygen is what causes the twilight zone uninhabitable - These are not parallel activities, so parallelism though maintained this cannot be our answer for sure - Incorrect
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2019, 22:18
OA is E, is it doubtful? where is the official explanation?
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Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 14 Aug 2019, 00:19
2
This question can be tricky if not approached with attention to detail. I'll attempt to explain why.

Sentence: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures.

Meaning: The vampire squid lives in a part of the ocean called the twilight zone. This zone contains very low levels of oxygen, and cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures. This part can be confusing to interpret since a lot of us also consider a case where the twilight zone cannot be inhabited only and only due to the low levels of oxygen, bringing in a cause and effect relationship. However, there are only two things that the sentence wants to convey:

1. The twilight zone contains extremely low levels of oxygen
2. The twilight zone cannot be inhabited by most sea creatures.

Let's get into the options.

Quote:
A) such as to be uninhabitable by most other sea creatures

Incorrect. The usage here is incorrect because we know that we can only use 'such as to' when the main clause and the subordinate clause are the same. Since it distorts the meaning, we can safely eliminate A.

Quote:
B) such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures

Incorrect. This option looks perfect at first because it seems to convey a cause an effect relationship between the twilight zone having low levels of dissolved oxygen, and that being the reason why it cannot be inhabited by sea creatures, making it the perfect trap answer. Two considerations:

1. The sentence wants to tell us two things about the twilight zone, as mentioned earlier. It does not mean that because the twilight zone has low levels of oxygen, it cannot be inhabited by other creatures.
2. The usage of uninhabitable to in this context is wrong. The usage of the preposition after uninhabitable depends on whether the subject in question is singular or plural.

Example 1: Parts of the Persian Gulf are uninhabitable to natives
Example 2: The twilight zone is uninhabitable for most sea creatures

Also, what exactly does 'it' refer to? The squid? The twilight zone? The oxygen? Too ambiguous.

For these reasons, B can be eliminated.

Quote:
C) that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

Incorrect. The lack of a conjunction at the beginning makes it seem like the low levels of dissolved oxygen cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures. C can be eliminated too.

Quote:
D) making them uninhabitable to most other sea creatures

Incorrect. The twilight zone is a singular subject, and the use of 'them' here clashes with that. This option has a lot more wrong with it than right, so we can eliminate D.

Quote:
E) and that cannot be inhabited by most other sea creatures

CORRECT. Bingo! At last, a sentence that has no ambiguity, and conveys the intended meaning of the sentence in a crisp and correct manner. The conjunction 'and' here is really important, as it separates the two things that we discussed above. The usage of 'that' here also brings in an element of parallelism.

Hope it helps.

--
Pritam

Originally posted by pielkay on 08 Aug 2019, 22:28.
Last edited by pielkay on 14 Aug 2019, 00:19, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2019, 16:56
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2019, 13:47
I was deciding between B and E and I went with B.

The original prompt seems to say that it is due to the oxygen that the twilight zone is uninhabitable. The same idea is represented in B. Whereas in E, the twilight zone has oxygen and is uninhabitable.

How should I know that the intended meaning is the one in E?
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Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2019, 14:04
1
Xin Cho wrote:
I was deciding between B and E and I went with B.

The original prompt seems to say that it is due to the oxygen that the twilight zone is uninhabitable. The same idea is represented in B. Whereas in E, the twilight zone has oxygen and is uninhabitable.

How should I know that the intended meaning is the one in E?

Xin Cho , are you confused by the OE (HERE)? (That question is bolded because the upcoming quotation bubbles often obscure text.)

Quote:
Quote:
(B) Found in the depths of all the world's oceans, the vampire squid lives in a twilight zone that contains extremely low levels of dissolved oxygen such that it is uninhabitable to most other sea creatures.

• in general, be very wary of such that if the words are together
I cannot find one official SC question in which "such that" (with nothing between the two words) is correct.
Not one. (I am happy to stand corrected.)

In the footnote you will find six official questions with at least one option that uses "such that."

These six are among the very few I have found that test "such that" at all. (I think I have seen eight official questions with such that in the answer choices.)
• you will see such that frequently in Quant. Quant is not SC.
• this phrase is commonly used. It is written all over the forum. As far as I can tell after scouring official questions , it is not used in SC on the GMAT.
• the typical correct construction is [SUCH + adjective + noun + THAT] or [SUCH + noun + THAT]
-- He was such a grouchy professor that he intimidated students.
-- The conversation was such a delight that I did not want it to end.
• uninhabitable to? Not great

** OFFICIAL QUESTIONS IN WHICH "SUCH THAT" is INCORRECT. I cannot find ANY official questions in which this phrasing is correct.
SPOILER ALERT: If you click on these links to official questions, you will know at least one incorrect answer and perhaps two.
OFFICIAL QUESTIONS in which such that is an option but not the correct answer.
HERE, #1

HERE, #2

HERE, #3

HERE, #4

HERE, #5

[u]HERE, #6

Furthermore, option A does not determine the meaning of the sentence.

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12 Aug 2019, 14:26
Xin Cho

Option B uses "such that." As I noted in my OE (HERE) and in my reply to you (HERE,) I cannot find any official question whose correct answer contains the phrase "such that" (with the words placed right next to each other).

I came to that conclusion after scouring hundreds of official questions.

Ron Purewal, formerly of Manhattan Prep, drew a similar conclusion. He wrote
Quote:
i am 99% sure that you'll NEVER see "such that", in one piece, in a correct answer on the gmat.

You can find that sentence in this post, HERE.

Hope that helps.
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Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2019, 02:02
Thank you very much for the reply generis...

...and my apologies for the dumb question. I was always of the opinion that the original prompt (that would be the "A") determines the intended meaning. If I am given two possible answers with difference only in the meaning, how will I be able to determine the intended meaning?
Re: Found in the depths of all the world's oceans the vampire squid lives   [#permalink] 13 Aug 2019, 02:02

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