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In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains

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In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers. Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger. Because these galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies. Apparently these low-surface-brightness galaxies, as they are called, take much longer than conventional galaxies to condense their primordial gas and convert it to stars—that is, they evolve much more slowly.

These galaxies may constitute an answer to the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. Baryons—subatomic particles that are generally protons or neutrons—are the source of stellar, and therefore galactic, luminosity, and so their numbers can be estimated based on how luminous galaxies are. However, the amount of helium in the universe, as measured by spectroscopy, suggests that there are far more baryons in the universe than estimates based on galactic luminosity indicate. Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.
Questions 91–97 refer to the passage above.


91. According to the passage, conventional spiral galaxies differ from low-surface-brightness galaxies in which of the following ways?

(A) They have fewer stars than do low-surface brightness galaxies.
(B) They evolve more quickly than low-surfacebrightness galaxies.
(C) They are more diffuse than low-surfacebrightness galaxies.
(D) They contain less helium than do low-surfacebrightness galaxies.
(E) They are larger than low-surface-brightness galaxies.

OA&OE 91. A The passage states that dim galaxies have approximately the same numbers of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy.
B Correct. The passage indicates that dim galaxies evolve much more slowly than conventional galaxies, which entails that conventional galaxies evolve more quickly.
C The passage states that dim galaxies are more spread out, and therefore more diff use, than conventional galaxies.
D The passage does not mention the relative amounts of helium in the two types of galaxies under discussion.
E The passage states that dim galaxies tend to be much larger than conventional galaxies.

The correct answer is B.



92. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is an accurate physical description of typical low-surface-brightness galaxies?

(A) They are large spiral galaxies containing fewer stars than do conventional galaxies.
(B) They are compact but very dim spiral galaxies.
(C) They are diffuse spiral galaxies that occupy a large volume of space.
(D) They are small, young spiral galaxies that contain a high proportion of primordial gas.
(E) They are large, dense spirals with low luminosity.

OA&OE 92. A The passage states that the two types of galaxies have approximately the same number of stars.
B The passage indicates that dim galaxies are relatively large and spread out.
C Correct. Th e passage indicates that dim galaxies have the same general shape as spiral galaxies and that their mass is spread out over large areas of space.
D The passage indicates that dim galaxies are relatively large and spread out.
E The passage states that dim galaxies have few stars per unit of volume, suggesting that they are not dense but diff use.

The correct answer is C.



93. It can be inferred from the passage that the “longstanding puzzle” refers to which of the following?

(A) The difference between the rate at which conventional galaxies evolve and the rate at which low-surface-brightness galaxies evolve

(B) The discrepancy between estimates of total baryonic mass derived from measuring helium and estimates based on measuring galactic luminosity

(C) The inconsistency between the observed amount of helium in the universe and the number of stars in typical low-surface-brightness galaxies

(D) Uncertainties regarding what proportion of baryonic mass is contained in intergalactic space and what proportion in conventional galaxies

(E) Difficulties involved in detecting very distant galaxies and in investigating their luminosity

OA&OE 93. A Th e diff erences between the rates of evolution of the two types of galaxies is not treated as being controversial in the passage.
B Correct. The passage indicates that measurements using spectroscopy and measurements using luminosity result in puzzling diff erences in estimates of the universe’s baryonic mass.
C The passage does not suggest how helium might relate to the numbers of stars in dim galaxies.
D The passage indicates that astronomers have speculated that the missing baryonic mass might be discovered in intergalactic space or hard-to-detect galaxies, but does not suggest that these speculations are constituents of the long-standing puzzle.
E The passage does not mention how the distance to galaxies aff ects scientists’ ability to detect these galaxies.

The correct answer is B.



94. The author implies that low-surface-brightness galaxies could constitute an answer to the puzzle discussed in the second paragraph primarily because

(A) they contain baryonic mass that was not taken into account by researchers using galactic luminosity to estimate the number of baryons in the universe

(B) they, like conventional galaxies that contain many baryons, have evolved from massive, primordial gas clouds

(C) they may contain relatively more helium, and hence more baryons, than do galaxies whose helium content has been studied using spectroscopy

(D) they have recently been discovered to contain more baryonic mass than scientists had thought when low-surface-brightness galaxies were first observed

(E) they contain stars that are signifi cantly more luminous than would have been predicted on the basis of initial studies of luminosity in lowsurface-brightness galaxies

OA&OE 94. A Correct. Th e passage states that the missing baryonic mass in the universe may be discovered in the dim galaxies that have only recently been noticed by astronomers.
B The passage does not suggest that dim and conventional galaxies both originating from primordial gas clouds help solve the longstanding puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe.
C The passage does not suggest that dim galaxies might contain more helium than do conventional galaxies, or that measures of baryonic mass using spectroscopy do not take some dim galaxies into account.
D The passage does not suggest that dim galaxies contain more baryonic mass than scientists originally believed upon discovering these galaxies.
E The passage suggests that scientists measured the luminosity of galaxies, not of individual stars.

The correct answer is A.



95. The author mentions the fact that baryons are the source of stars’ luminosity primarily in order to explain

(A) how astronomers determine that some galaxies contain fewer stars per unit volume than do others
(B) how astronomers are able to calculate the total luminosity of a galaxy
(C) why astronomers can use galactic luminosity to estimate baryonic mass
(D) why astronomers’ estimates of baryonic mass based on galactic luminosity are more reliable than those based on spectroscopic studies of helium
(E) how astronomers know bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies

OA&OE 95. A The passage discussion of baryons does not address the number of stars in individual galaxies.
B The passage discusses how the luminosity of galaxies can be used to estimate baryonic mass, but does not address how total luminosity is measured.
C Correct. Th e passage indicates that because baryons are the source of galactic luminosity, measuring luminosity can be used to estimate baryonic mass of galaxies.
D The passage suggests that estimates based on luminosity may have been less accurate,not more accurate, than those based on spectroscopy.
E The passage does not indicate that bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies.

The correct answer is C.



96. The author of the passage would be most likely to disagree with which of the following statements?

(A) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxies.
(B) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spiral in shape.
(C) Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found.
(D) Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe.
(E) Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space.

OA&OE 96. A The passage indicates that low-surfacebrightness galaxies went unnoticed until recently, unlike conventional galaxies.

B The passage indicates that low-surface brightness galaxies have the same general shape as spiral galaxies.
C The passage describes two possible explanations astronomers have given for the missing baryonic mass, one of which was made more plausible by the discovery of low-surface-brightness galaxies.
D The passage indicates that astronomers have used spectroscopy to estimate baryonic mass and gives no reason to suspect that this method is not useful.
E Correct. Th e passage does not indicate that astronomers have found any baryonic mass in intergalactic space.

The correct answer is E.



97. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance
(B) contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzzling difference between them
(C) identify a newly discovered phenomenon and explain its origins
(D) compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each
(E) discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory

OA&OE 97. A Correct. The passage describes the phenomenon of dim galaxies and describes their significance in solving the longstanding puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe.
B Although the passage discusses the puzzling difference between the two estimates of baryonic mass, this option does not account for the broader topic of dim galaxies.
C While the passage identifi es the newly discovered phenomenon of dim galaxies, it does not off er a signifi cant explanation for these galaxies’ origins.
D Although the passage compares dim and conventional galaxies in the fi rst paragraph, this option does not account for the important detail that dim galaxies may help solve a long-standing puzzle.
E The discovery of dim galaxies discussed in the passage is not said to be inconsistent with any existing scientific theory.

The correct answer is A.


Originally posted by mendelay on 16 Sep 2009, 14:00.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Aug 2019, 20:37, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (154).
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 05:05
Can someone explain how do you read a passage like this one (relatively clear structure, but a lot of supporting details to comprehend). I got 7/7 right in 10 mins, but still feel that I haven't built a consistent approach. Can someone who is good at this explain (as I do below) how to do it right, i.e. how to know how much time and attention to develop to specific details ? What do you exactly take from your first read?


Quote:
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers.

Most important sentence. There are two type of galaxies, conventional and dim. Until recently, scientists did not know about the dim galaxies.
Quote:
Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger. Because these galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies. Apparently these low-surface-brightness galaxies, as they are called, take much longer than conventional galaxies to condense their primordial gas and convert it to stars—that is, they evolve much more slowly.

This is the part I am not sure about. I'd note only that bunch of differences are given, and skim to try to comprehend what the differences are. During my read, I happened to remember the difference in size in density, but what I remembered was not important

Quote:
These galaxies may constitute an answer to the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. Baryons—subatomic particles that are generally protons or neutrons—are the source of stellar, and therefore galactic, luminosity, and so their numbers can be estimated based on how luminous galaxies are. However, the amount of helium in the universe, as measured by spectroscopy, suggests that there are far more baryons in the universe than estimates based on galactic luminosity indicate. Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.

Again, I am not sure how to tackle this para.
Again, here I'd only note that knowledge about dim galaxies might help explain why measures relying on luminosity and helium give different estimates of baryonic mass in the universe However, the paragraph contains a lot more info that requires time to comprehend. What do I do with all that information during the first read?
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New post 22 May 2017, 11:53
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kivalo wrote:
Can someone explain how do you read a passage like this one (relatively clear structure, but a lot of supporting details to comprehend). I got 7/7 right in 10 mins, but still feel that I haven't built a consistent approach. Can someone who is good at this explain (as I do below) how to do it right, i.e. how to know how much time and attention to develop to specific details ? What do you exactly take from your first read?


Quote:
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers.

Most important sentence. There are two type of galaxies, conventional and dim. Until recently, scientists did not know about the dim galaxies.
Quote:
Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger. Because these galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies. Apparently these low-surface-brightness galaxies, as they are called, take much longer than conventional galaxies to condense their primordial gas and convert it to stars—that is, they evolve much more slowly.

This is the part I am not sure about. I'd note only that bunch of differences are given, and skim to try to comprehend what the differences are. During my read, I happened to remember the difference in size in density, but what I remembered was not important

Quote:
These galaxies may constitute an answer to the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. Baryons—subatomic particles that are generally protons or neutrons—are the source of stellar, and therefore galactic, luminosity, and so their numbers can be estimated based on how luminous galaxies are. However, the amount of helium in the universe, as measured by spectroscopy, suggests that there are far more baryons in the universe than estimates based on galactic luminosity indicate. Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.

Again, I am not sure how to tackle this para.
Again, here I'd only note that knowledge about dim galaxies might help explain why measures relying on luminosity and helium give different estimates of baryonic mass in the universe However, the paragraph contains a lot more info that requires time to comprehend. What do I do with all that information during the first read?


Though I am not an expert, I say identifying the structure in the first read is good enough to go ahead with the questions. In other words the "minimum" amount of reading that is necessary for you to answer the Primary Purpose question is enough in the first reading.
If some expert reply to this question, then I suppose it would be more fruitful for you and for me also.
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New post 23 Sep 2017, 04:23
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Hi Keats

The author of the passage would be most likely to disagree with which of the following statements?
A. Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxies.
B. Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spiral in shape.
C. Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found.
D. Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe. Astronomers have devised no new method, its just the puzzle that has been solved by the discovery of low brightness galaxies. So no agree or disagree
E. Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space. This is most open to disagreement as author doesnt say about discovery of any new amount baryonic mass
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2017, 11:00
Decent passage , got all correct except Q96(6th question) in 12 mins , including 3 mins 15 seconds to read .
For Q96 , i was stuck between option D and E and could not eliminate either .

AjiteshArun , mikemcgarry ,GMATNinja , ccooley , other experts -- can you please help ?
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New post 16 Dec 2017, 06:45
Skywalker18 wrote:
Decent passage , got all correct except Q96(6th question) in 12 mins , including 3 mins 15 seconds to read .
For Q96 , i was stuck between option D and E and could not eliminate either .
The passage says astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space, but option E says astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space.

According to the passage, the mass might be discovered (in the future). Option E says that the discovery has already happened. Therefore, we'd expect the author to disagree with E.
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New post 21 Jan 2018, 07:41
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SMD wrote:
Can someone please explain Q97-I chose D but correct OA is A,why option D is incorrect.

Thanks!


Hi SMD,

Here's my summary of the passage in very terms-

PARAGRAPH 1: dim galaxies v/s conventional galaxies
PARAGRAPH 2: Missing baryonic mass- a puzzle

My pre-thinking for this main idea question was that it should include the summary of both the paragraphs.

I wasn't very convinced with option A, but I used POE to eliminate other options.

Although option D summarizes the first paragraph (comparison between dim galaxies and conventional galaxies), it does not talk about baryonic mass at all. If option D had a bit more information (how dim galaxies might help explain the missing baryonic mass puzzle), it would have been a better answer choice :-)

I hope this helps.

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New post 29 May 2018, 22:45
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AD2GMAT wrote:
kivalo wrote:
Can someone explain how do you read a passage like this one (relatively clear structure, but a lot of supporting details to comprehend). I got 7/7 right in 10 mins, but still feel that I haven't built a consistent approach. Can someone who is good at this explain (as I do below) how to do it right, i.e. how to know how much time and attention to develop to specific details ? What do you exactly take from your first read?


Quote:
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers.

Most important sentence. There are two type of galaxies, conventional and dim. Until recently, scientists did not know about the dim galaxies.
Quote:
Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger. Because these galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies. Apparently these low-surface-brightness galaxies, as they are called, take much longer than conventional galaxies to condense their primordial gas and convert it to stars—that is, they evolve much more slowly.

This is the part I am not sure about. I'd note only that bunch of differences are given, and skim to try to comprehend what the differences are. During my read, I happened to remember the difference in size in density, but what I remembered was not important

Quote:
These galaxies may constitute an answer to the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. Baryons—subatomic particles that are generally protons or neutrons—are the source of stellar, and therefore galactic, luminosity, and so their numbers can be estimated based on how luminous galaxies are. However, the amount of helium in the universe, as measured by spectroscopy, suggests that there are far more baryons in the universe than estimates based on galactic luminosity indicate. Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.

Again, I am not sure how to tackle this para.
Again, here I'd only note that knowledge about dim galaxies might help explain why measures relying on luminosity and helium give different estimates of baryonic mass in the universe However, the paragraph contains a lot more info that requires time to comprehend. What do I do with all that information during the first read?


Though I am not an expert, I say identifying the structure in the first read is good enough to go ahead with the questions. In other words the "minimum" amount of reading that is necessary for you to answer the Primary Purpose question is enough in the first reading.
If some expert reply to this question, then I suppose it would be more fruitful for you and for me also.

GMATNinja

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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 20:45
JAIN09 wrote:
AD2GMAT wrote:
kivalo wrote:
Can someone explain how do you read a passage like this one (relatively clear structure, but a lot of supporting details to comprehend). I got 7/7 right in 10 mins, but still feel that I haven't built a consistent approach. Can someone who is good at this explain (as I do below) how to do it right, i.e. how to know how much time and attention to develop to specific details ? What do you exactly take from your first read?


Though I am not an expert, I say identifying the structure in the first read is good enough to go ahead with the questions. In other words the "minimum" amount of reading that is necessary for you to answer the Primary Purpose question is enough in the first reading.
If some expert reply to this question, then I suppose it would be more fruitful for you and for me also.

GMATNinja

please give your valuable inputs

@AD2GMAT's response was spot on! Reading for structure and purpose is definitely the way to go. Check out the post here.

For a more in-depth discussion of general RC technique, check out the Ultimate RC Guide for Beginners.
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New post 04 Jun 2018, 16:14
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keats wrote:
Can anyone explain Q 96 options D and E.

I'm not at all satisfied by the explanation given.


Hey keats,
As per my understanding it's E.
Reasoning - In the given passage end it's been written that astronomers have speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered.
It means that they haven't discovered a way yet.
So, we can infer that they haven't discovered a way till now in reality, but they are speculating a way in future with different options.

Hope it helps.
Not an expert till now.( ;) ;) )
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2018, 00:54
Hi guys,

Could you please help me with the specific RC approach please?
When i'm doing passages like this one, where there is something PHYSICAL happening that you can imagine, i have no problems at all, and can even make the map of the passage in my head pretty quickly, and usually asnwer everything correctly - here i got everything correct pretty fast (one misclick, but pure mechanical error) without even taking notes, because everything was clear enough.

But when i get passages about something non-physical (human rights, political things, or when nothing is happening at all in the passage - no actions) - i just can't get the point of the passage, can't build its map, and it's much harder for me to understand any specific things.
The funny thing is my overall scores in mock tests jump 30-40 points ONLY because of different types of the passages i get: the more "abstract passages" i get - the less the score is.

So the question is: is your RC approach differs when dealing with different types of passages? Do any of you have/had the same problems?
How to battle this inconsistency (ofc in addition to practicing more abstract passages)?

Thanks in advance!
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New post 08 Jun 2018, 07:01
Skywalker18

Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these (DIM galaxies)galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral(Conventional galaxy), but tend to be much larger(Conventional galaxy). Because these (Dim galaxies) galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

I think there is no pronoun ambiguity rule for these authors :-D . Please check whether I marked the galaxies correctly or not.

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New post 08 Jun 2018, 21:00
QZ wrote:
Skywalker18

Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these (DIM galaxies)galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral(Conventional galaxy), but tend to be much larger(Conventional galaxy). Because these (Dim galaxies) galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

I think there is no pronoun ambiguity rule for these authors :-D . Please check whether I marked the galaxies correctly or not.

QZ


Hi QZ,
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers. -- The first statement provides us with the context for interpreting what pronoun 'these' stands for.
Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies(It refers to dim galaxies) have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, (the spiral is a common type of conventional galaxy)
but tend to be much larger. --> This describes a feature of dim galaxies
Because these galaxies’ (It refers to dim galaxies)mass is spread out over larger areas, they(refers to dim galaxies) have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

Hope this helps!! :-)
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2018, 21:19
Skywalker18 wrote:
QZ wrote:
Skywalker18

Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these (DIM galaxies)galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral(Conventional galaxy), but tend to be much larger(Conventional galaxy). Because these (Dim galaxies) galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

I think there is no pronoun ambiguity rule for these authors :-D . Please check whether I marked the galaxies correctly or not.

QZ


Hi QZ,
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers. -- The first statement provides us with the context for interpreting what pronoun 'these' stands for.
Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies(It refers to dim galaxies) have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, (the spiral is a common type of conventional galaxy)
but tend to be much larger. --> This describes a feature of dim galaxies
Because these galaxies’ (It refers to dim galaxies)mass is spread out over larger areas, they(refers to dim galaxies) have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

Hope this helps!! :-)


Yes it truly helps. But, then how come the answer to question 91 or 1 is C. It asks for conventional galaxies features...they diffuse more than dim galaxies...IMO diffuse means more spreaded. But as per passage it says dim galaxies are more spreaded.

Hope I am asking clearly
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2018, 21:33
QZ wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
QZ wrote:
Skywalker18

Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these (DIM galaxies)galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral(Conventional galaxy), but tend to be much larger(Conventional galaxy). Because these (Dim galaxies) galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

I think there is no pronoun ambiguity rule for these authors :-D . Please check whether I marked the galaxies correctly or not.

QZ

Hi QZ,
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers. -- The first statement provides us with the context for interpreting what pronoun 'these' stands for.
Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies(It refers to dim galaxies) have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, (the spiral is a common type of conventional galaxy)
but tend to be much larger. --> This describes a feature of dim galaxies
Because these galaxies’ (It refers to dim galaxies)mass is spread out over larger areas, they(refers to dim galaxies) have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies.

Hope this helps!! :-)


Yes it truly helps. But, then how come the answer to question 91 or 1 is C. It asks for conventional galaxies features...they diffuse more than dim galaxies...IMO diffuse means more spreaded. But as per passage it says dim galaxies are more spreaded.

Hope I am asking clearly

Hi QZ,
OA for Q 91 is B.
91. According to the passage, conventional spiral galaxies differ from low-surface-brightness galaxies in which of the following ways?
(B) They evolve more quickly than low-surface brightness galaxies. -- According to the passage, dim galaxies evolve much more slowly.(Read the last line of 1st paragraph) So, B is correct
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 17:38
1
P1- new galaxies; slow; dim; diff with conventional galaxies.
P2 - how it is a missing puzzle. baryons
Main point - about new galaxies - similarity with conventional one and importance of their discovery.

91. According to the passage, conventional spiral galaxies differ from low-surface-brightness galaxies in which of the following ways?
must be in P1

(A) They have fewer stars than do low-surface brightness galaxies. - not true for all
(B) They evolve more quickly than low-surfacebrightness galaxies. - this must be correct.
(C) They are more diffuse than low-surfacebrightness galaxies. - not true for all
(D) They contain less helium than do low-surfacebrightness galaxies. - not true for all
(E) They are larger than low-surface-brightness galaxies. - not true for all
----------------------------------------

92. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is an accurate physical description of typical low-surface-brightness galaxies?

(A) They are large spiral galaxies containing fewer stars than do conventional galaxies. - no; the same approximate number of stars
(B) They are compact but very dim spiral galaxies. - dim is true but compact is not.
(C) They are diffuse spiral galaxies that occupy a large volume of space. - has to be this; the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger
(D) They are small, young spiral galaxies that contain a high proportion of primordial gas. - too broad.
(E) They are large, dense spirals with low luminosity. - no dense

----------------------------------------

93. It can be inferred from the passage that the “longstanding puzzle” refers to which of the following?
anchor - longstanding puzzle - of the missing baryonic mass in the universe ---- Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.

(B) The discrepancy between estimates of total baryonic mass derived from measuring helium and estimates based on measuring galactic luminosity - correct; best of the lot.

---------------------------------------
94. The author implies that low-surface-brightness galaxies could constitute an answer to the puzzle discussed in the second paragraph primarily because

the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.

(A) they contain baryonic mass that was not taken into account by researchers using galactic luminosity to estimate the number of baryons in the universe -

---------------------------------------

95. The author mentions the fact that baryons are the source of stars’ luminosity primarily in order to explain

(C) why astronomers can use galactic luminosity to estimate baryonic mass - yes

----------------------------------------

96. The author of the passage would be most likely to disagree with which of the following statements?

(A) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxies. - T
(B) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spiral in shape. - T
(C) Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found. - T
(D) Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe. - T
(E) Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space. - only theory is given here.

--------------------------------------

97. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance - to the point. P2 defines scientific significance.
(B) contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzzling difference between them - too weak
(C) identify a newly discovered phenomenon and explain its origins - explain its origins ---- seems wrong
(D) compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each - P1 only
(E) discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory - inconsistency ---- not true
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2018, 05:00
3

Official Answers and Explanations

1. According to the passage, conventional spiral galaxies differ from low-surfacebrightness
galaxies in which of the following ways?
A. They have fewer stars than do low-surface-brightness galaxies.
B. They evolve more quickly than low-surface-brightness galaxies.
C. They are more diffuse than low-surface-brightness galaxies.
D. They contain less helium than do low-surface-brightness galaxies.
E. They are larger than low-surface-brightness galaxies.
Supporting ideas
This question requires recognizing information that is provided in the passage.
The first paragraph describes and compares two types of galaxies: conventional galaxies and dim, or low-surface-brightness, galaxies. It states that dim galaxies have the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy but tend to be larger and more diffuse because their mass is spread over wider areas . The passage also indicates that dim galaxies take longer than conventional galaxies to convert their primordial gases into stars, meaning that dim galaxies evolve much more slowly than conventional galaxies , which entails that conventional galaxies evolve more quickly than dim galaxies.
A. The passage states that dim galaxies have approximately the same numbers of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy.
B. Correct. The passage indicates that dim galaxies evolve much more slowly than conventional galaxies, which entails that conventional galaxies evolve more quickly.
C. The passage states that dim galaxies are more spread out, and therefore more diffuse, than conventional galaxies.
D. The passage does not mention the relative amounts of helium in the two types of galaxies under discussion.
E. The passage states that dim galaxies tend to be much larger than conventional galaxies.
The correct answer is B.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is an accurate physical description of typical low-surface-brightness galaxies?
A. They are large spiral galaxies containing fewer stars than conventional galaxies.
B. They are compact but very dim spiral galaxies.
C. They are diffuse spiral galaxies that occupy a large volume of space.
D. They are small, young spiral galaxies that contain a high proportion of primordial gas.
E. They are large, dense spirals with low luminosity.
Inference
This question requires drawing an inference from information given in the passage. The first paragraph compares dim galaxies and conventional galaxies. Dim galaxies are described as having the same general shape (lines 4–5) as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral galaxy, suggesting that dim galaxies are, themselves, spiral shaped. The passage also indicates that, although
both types of galaxies tend to have approximately the same number of stars, dim galaxies tend to be much larger and spread out over larger areas of space than conventional galaxies.
A. The passage states that the two types of galaxies have approximately the same number of stars.
B. The passage indicates that dim galaxies are relatively large and spread out.
C. Correct. The passage indicates that dim galaxies have the same general shape as spiral galaxies and that their mass is spread out over large areas of space.
D. The passage indicates that dim galaxies are relatively large and spread out.
E. The passage states that dim galaxies have few stars per unit of volume,
suggesting that they are not dense but diffuse.
The correct answer is C.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the “long-standing puzzle” refers to which of the following?
A. The difference between the rate at which conventional galaxies evolve and the rate at which low-surface-brightness galaxies evolve
B. The discrepancy between estimates of total baryonic mass derived from measuring helium and estimates based on measuring galactic luminosity
C. The inconsistency between the observed amount of helium in the universe and the number of stars in typical low-surface-brightness galaxiesD. Uncertainties regarding what proportion of baryonic mass is contained in intergalactic space and what proportion in conventional galaxies
E. Difficulties involved in detecting very distant galaxies and in investigating their luminosity
Inference
This question requires drawing an inference from information given in the passage. The second paragraph describes the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. The passage states that baryons are the source of galactic luminosity, and so scientists can estimate the amount of baryonic mass in the universe by measuring the luminosity of galaxies (lines 17–21). The puzzle is that spectroscopic measures of helium in the universe suggest that the baryonic mass in the universe is much higher than measures of luminosity would indicate.
A. The differences between the rates of evolution of the two types of galaxies is not treated as being controversial in the passage.
B. Correct. The passage indicates that measurements using spectroscopy and measurements using luminosity result in puzzling differences in estimates of the universe’s baryonic mass.
C. The passage does not suggest how helium might relate to the numbers of stars in dim galaxies.
D. The passage indicates that astronomers have speculated that the missing baryonic mass might be discovered in intergalactic space or hard-to-detect galaxies but does not suggest that these speculations are constituents of the long-standing puzzle.
E. The passage does not mention how the distance to galaxies affects scientists’ ability to detect these galaxies.
The correct answer is B.

4. The author implies that low-surface-brightness galaxies could constitute an answer to the puzzle discussed in the second paragraph primarily because
A. they contain baryonic mass that was not taken into account by researchers using galactic luminosity to estimate the number of baryons in the universe
B. they, like conventional galaxies that contain many baryons, have evolved from massive, primordial gas clouds
C. they may contain relatively more helium, and hence more baryons, than do galaxies whose helium content has been studied using spectroscopy
D. they have recently been discovered to contain more baryonic mass than scientists had thought when low-surface-brightness galaxies were firstobserved
E. they contain stars that are significantly more luminous than would have been predicted on the basis of initial studies of luminosity in low-surfacebrightness galaxies
Inference
This question requires drawing an inference from information given in the passage. The puzzle is that estimates of the baryonic mass of the universe based on luminosity are lower than those based on spectroscopy . The passage states that astronomers did not notice dim galaxies until recently and that these galaxies may help account for the missing baryonic mass in the universe . The passage also suggests that astronomers measure the luminosity of specific galaxies . Thus it can be inferred that, prior to their being noticed by astronomers, the luminosity of these dim galaxies was not measured, and their baryonic mass was not taken into account in the estimates of luminosity that led to the long-standing puzzle.
A. Correct. The passage states that the missing baryonic mass in the universe may be discovered in the dim galaxies that have only recently been noticed by astronomers.
B. The passage does not suggest that dim and conventional galaxies both originating from primordial gas clouds help solve the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe.
C. The passage does not suggest that dim galaxies might contain more helium than do conventional galaxies or that measures of baryonic mass using spectroscopy do not take some dim galaxies into account.
D. The passage does not suggest that dim galaxies contain more baryonic mass than scientists originally believed upon discovering these galaxies.
E. The passage suggests that scientists measured the luminosity of galaxies, not of individual stars.
The correct answer is A.

5. The author mentions the fact that baryons are the source of stars’ luminosity primarily in order to explain
A. how astronomers determine that some galaxies contain fewer stars per unit volume than do others
B. how astronomers are able to calculate the total luminosity of a galaxy
C. why astronomers can use galactic luminosity to estimate baryonic mass
D. why astronomers’ estimates of baryonic mass based on galactic luminosity are more reliable than those based on spectroscopic studies of heliumE. how astronomers know bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies
Evaluation
This question requires understanding how one aspect of the passage relates to the reasoning in a larger portion of the passage. The second paragraph explains that scientists have been puzzled over missing baryonic mass in the universe as measured by luminosity (lines 21–25). Given that baryons are the source of luminosity in the galaxy (lines 17–19), astronomers can estimate the baryonic mass of a galaxy by measuring its luminosity.
A. The passage discussion of baryons does not address the number of stars in individual galaxies.
B. The passage discusses how the luminosity of galaxies can be used to estimate baryonic mass but does not address how total luminosity is measured.
C. Correct. The passage indicates that because baryons are the source of galactic luminosity, measuring luminosity can be used to estimate baryonic
mass of galaxies.
D. The passage suggests that estimates based on luminosity may have been less accurate, not more accurate, than those based on spectroscopy.
E. The passage does not indicate that bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies.
The correct answer is C.

6. The author of the passage would be most likely to disagree with which of the following statements?
A. Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxies.
B. Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spiral in shape.
C. Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found.
D. Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe.
E. Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space.
Inference
This question involves identifying which answer option potentially conflicts with the information the author has provided in the passage. The second paragraphindicates that astronomers’ estimates of the baryonic mass of the universe is lower when measured using luminosity than it is when measured using spectroscopy . The final sentence states that astronomers have speculated that the missing baryonic mass might be discovered in intergalactic space or in hard-to-detect galaxies (lines 25–29). Although the passage does indicate that the discovery of dim, low-surface-brightness galaxies might help account for the missing baryonic mass (lines 15–17), the passage provides no support for the possibility that baryonic mass has been discovered in intergalactic space.
A. The passage indicates that low-surface-brightness galaxies went unnoticed until recently, unlike conventional galaxies.
B. The passage indicates that low-surface-brightness galaxies have the same general shape as spiral galaxies.
C. The passage describes two possible explanations astronomers have given for the missing baryonic mass, one of which was made more plausible by the discovery of low-surface-brightness galaxies.
D. The passage indicates that astronomers have used spectroscopy to estimate baryonic mass and gives no reason to suspect that this method is not useful.
E. Correct. The passage does not indicate that astronomers have found any baryonic mass in intergalactic space.
The correct answer is E.

7. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance
B. contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzzling difference between them
C. identify a newly discovered phenomenon and explain its origins
D. compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each
E. discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory
Main idea
This question requires understanding, in broad terms, the purpose of the passage as a whole. The first paragraph describes a phenomenon: the discovery of dim galaxies and some of their general attributes. The second paragraph describes how this discovery may help astronomers to solve a long-standing puzzle about the baryonic mass of the universe.
A. Correct. The passage describes the phenomenon of dim galaxies and describes their significance in solving the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe.
B. Although the passage discusses the puzzling difference between the two estimates of baryonic mass, this option does not account for the broader topic of dim galaxies.
C. While the passage identifies the newly discovered phenomenon of dim galaxies, it does not offer a significant explanation for these galaxies’ origins.
D. Although the passage compares dim and conventional galaxies in the first paragraph, this option does not account for the important detail that dim galaxies may help solve a long-standing puzzle.
E. The discovery of dim galaxies discussed in the passage is not said to be inconsistent with any existing scientific theory.
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2019, 11:00
This was a tough one! I unexpectedly found myself struggling with RC after having zero problems doing Manhattan practice exams. When I did the Manhattan Prep test, I can't even recall getting 1 RC question wrong ever...but then when I transitioned to the OG stuff, I found that I was really struggling. That said, I always, always, always suggest that people focus on using reading materials from the science/technology, as well as global business sections from The Economist and the NYTimes as practice, and then testing for improvement by practicing only OG questions. In my personal experience, this has yielded the largest improvement for me.

I think a key part of my improvement thus far has also hinged on the fact that I deliberately pick articles I just do not want to read because (a) the topic is too foreign and (b) the topic seems super boring. Articles about galaxies, stars, and general science typically bring on the ZZzzZs for me so I pick those as they are both boring and incredibly confusing to me.

One of the most basic points you should be able to answer after every practice article is "what was the point of this article?" and being able to articulate it in a very short but succinct sentence. If you're going to keep this question in mind, you'll intuitively find yourself transitioning from reading 'fact, fact, fact' to a sentence by sentence structural understanding of 'introduction, opinion, opposing opinion, explanation etc'. I highly recommend that you read/watch videos done by the GMATNinjas and Mike McGarry if you want a refresher on how to read.

Now on with the RC! I'm going to start with commenting on the final question because it is equally basic as it is difficult question.

Quote:
97. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance
(B) contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzzling difference between them
(C) identify a newly discovered phenomenon and explain its origins
(D) compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each
(E) discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory

Step 1. I always, always, always rephrase the passage as I read. - This passage is fairly short, and there isn't much we need to do to organize our thoughts because the writer seems to have done the bulk of it. The first paragraph introduces the topic, comparing and contrasting two types of galaxies. The second paragraph moves into how the 'dim galaxies' may hold answers to a long-standing puzzle.

Step 2. For every question, always go back to the passage. - When I reach this question, I quickly revisit the passage at a very high level to again paraphrase the highlights of the passage. This jogs my memory so that I can get a good handle on what I'm going to be looking out for in the answer choices of a high-level, big picture type of question (i.e. not detail related).

Step 3. Always find 4 wrong answers!
    (A) describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance - This sounds promising...not a bingo! straight away in my mind, but I will definitely put this guy on hold. I've returned after eliminating all else, and this now sounds spot on!

    (B) contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzzling difference between them - The passage compared two types of a single phenomena: galaxies. Although I'm not certain, I don't think I would call the conventional and dim galaxies two separate phenomena, but rather, 2 types of a single phenomena. Also, the primary purpose was not discussing a puzzling difference between these two galaxies. I think the primary purpose was captured in par-graph 2 sentence 1: "These galaxies may constitute an answer to the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe." The dim galaxies seem to just have some sort of scientific significance in resolving a long unsolved puzzle.

    (C) identify a newly discovered phenomenon and explain its origins - There is no mention of any 'newly' discovered phenomenon, but rather, a 'long-standing puzzle'.. In addition, the passage never touches on, let alone explains, origins of any phenomena.

    (D) compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each - Nice, this answer choice gives me more confidence in my justification for answer choice (B). While the first paragraph does exactly what this answer choice states, it is not the primary purpose of the passage. As we can see, the first sentence of the second paragraph introduces the purpose of the passage as it effectively switches the tone of the passage from being explanatory to questioning while using the information from paragraph as context.

    The second paragraph is where the heart of the passage's purpose lies and the first and last sentence of the second paragraph structurally cement this. For the purposes of eliminating this specific answer choice, I think it is enough to recognize that there is a second paragraph and it is not at all doing what this choice states, but instead opening up room for discussion and further exploration.


    (E) discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory - I think that this is a very tempting answer choice because it is very abstract. I do not think I give the best explanation as to how and why I eliminate this choice, but I'll do my best! I actually got this question wrong and chose this after I got down to choosing between (A) and (E) and was feeling like I needed to just pick!

    First point of confusion for me here is that I am uncertain whether I would label these galaxies being discussed as discoveries in present day...they were definitely 'discovered' and i.e. new phenomena at some point.... Even if I call these galaxies a new discovery, the passage does not point out their inconsistency with any existing theory. Instead, the passage discusses the inconsistency on the amount of Baryons are in one of them as measured by two different methods.

    I think that if the purpose of the passage was to discuss a 'discovery', the author would very deliberately mention the word discovery. On this basis, I eliminate this choice.


Main takeaway: Answer choices like (E) are prime examples of abstract thoughts that touch enough on relevant and true portion so the passage that it is a very easy trap to fall into.

Feedback and comment not only welcome, but encouraged!! I think lots of people would benefit from discussion on this one.
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 11:25
I think that the official explanation for Q96 is spot-on; however, I thought I would contribute my perspective because I found this question challenging.

Quote:
96. The author of the passage would be most likely to disagree with which of the following statements?

(A) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxies.
(B) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spiral in shape.
(C) Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found.
(D) Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe.
(E) Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space.

Step 1. I always, always, always rephrase the passage as I read. - This one is for before starting the questions =)

Step 2. For every question, always go back to the passage. - This is an inference question, but since it is a 'big picture' kind, I'll be going back to the passage for each answer choice as I eliminate, as opposed to going straight to a point in the passage from the beginning.

Step 3. Always find 4 wrong answers!
    (A) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxies. - Paragraph 1, sentence 1 - "In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers" The underlined portion of the passage lets me infer, yes, the author would agree with this statement. Next.

    (B) Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spiral in shape. - Paragraph 1, sentence 2 - "Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral...etc" The underlined portion of the passage lets me infer, yes, the author would agree with this statement. Next.

    (C) Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found. - Paragraph 2 final sentence, "Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect"

    (D) Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe. - Paragraph 2 talks about how there are two different methods for estimating the total Baryonic mass. Although they do not come to the same conclusion, it doesn't say that the methods are not useful. I can understand why this would be a very tempting choice, because if two methods don't come to the same conclusion, it seems like they're both inaccurate and i.e. not useful. However, it could very well be that one of them is bang on and the other useless, and as a result, we can't infer that the author would disagree with this.

    (E) Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space. - Paragraph 2, final sentence states that "Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect." Bingo! Says out right that the missing baryonic mass 'might eventually' i.e. has not yet been discovered.

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Big Fat Disclaimer: I am NotAnExpert, but rather, merely a person that is studying for the GMAT and wants to make the best of, and take the most out of this forum. My only goal is to contribute to the community from the which I have taken so much, and ultimately help make the GMAT Club forums a better place to learn. In my posts, I share my learning outcomes by verbalizing how I solved problems, and hope that the added perspective can help anyone achieve an 'ah-hah' moment.

Sometimes it takes a concept being explained in 15 different ways to achieve an 'ah hah' breakthrough moment and I am here to contribute one, of hopefully many, unique perspectives. I do not encourage or participate in posts that simply state "that was easy", or "relevant, out of scope, correct". I find that people - myself included - often have a difficult time truly understanding the fact that in CR/RC questions, there will be one very definitively black and white correct answer, just a there is in Quant. As a result, my posts are exclusively focused on CR and RC. There is no such thing as a 'kinda right' question and because of this, I contribute detailed posts on how I came to my answer in hopes that it will connect with someone.

Wishing everyone all the best
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Re: In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains   [#permalink] 19 Jun 2019, 11:25
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