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Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well

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Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2017, 18:53
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Question 1
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Question Stats:

44% (01:34) correct 56% (01:39) wrong based on 165

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Question 2
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E

Question Stats:

52% (00:34) correct 48% (00:16) wrong based on 162

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Question 3
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31% (00:35) correct 69% (00:28) wrong based on 156

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Question 4
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30% (00:57) correct 70% (01:26) wrong based on 152

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Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well as the development and refinement of other physical laws, led to
the idea of scientific determinism. The first expression of this principle was in the beginning of the nineteenth century by Laplace, a French scientist. Laplace argued that if one knew the position and velocity of all the particles in the universe at a given time, the laws of physics would be able to predict the future state of the universe.

Scientific determinism held sway over a great many scientists until the early twentieth century, when the quantum mechanics revolution occurred. Quantum mechanics introduced the world to the idea of the uncertainty principle, which stated that it was impossible to accurately measure both the position and the velocity of a particle at one time. Because Laplace’s omniscience could never occur, even in theory, the principle of scientific determinism was thrown into doubt. However, quantum mechanics does allow for a reduced form of scientific determinism. Even though physicists are unable to know precisely where a particle is and what its velocity is, they can determine certain probabilities about its position and velocity. These probabilities are called wave functions. By use of a formula known as the Schrodinger equation, a scientist with the wave function of a particle at a given time can calculate the particle’s future wave function. These calculations can give the particle’s position or velocity, but not both. Thus, the physicist is in possession of exactly half of the information needed to satisfy Laplace’s view of determinism. Unfortunately, under modern physics theories, that is far as any researcher can go in predicting the future.

1. The passage suggests that if scientific determinism were true
A. scientists would, in theory, be able to predict the future
B. all the particles in the universe would have a measurable position and velocity
C. the theory of quantum mechanics would be false
D. Schrodinger’s equation could be used to calculate any particle’s position
E. the quantum mechanics revolution would not have occurred

2. According to the passage, wave functions
A. allow scientists to determine the position and velocity of a particle
B. are determined by the Schrodinger equation
C. provide a range of possible locations and velocities for a particle
D. allow a scientist to calculate the future state of the universe
E. threw the proposition of scientific determinism into doubt

3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the
passage?
A. A paradox is introduced, competing explanations are offered, and a final resolution is reached.
B. Two opposing theories are introduced, critiqued, and reconciled.
C. An idea is introduced, its validity is questioned, and its application qualified.
D. A theory is introduced, its mathematical basis is examined, and it is rejected.
E. An argument is made, an objection to it is detailed, and the argument is revised.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s conclusion in the passage’s final sentence?
A. Some physicists believe quantum mechanics will eventually be discarded in favor of a new theory.
B. Physicists still use Newton’s laws of motion to calculate the velocities and positions of planets and stars.
C. Even if the position and velocity of a particle were known, predicting the future would be impossible because there are too many other variables to calculate.
D. There is little to no chance that the modern theory of quantum mechanics will be overturned by another theory.
E. No scientists are pursuing studies in the field of determinism.

Source: McGraw-Hill's GMAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 05:36
Can someone please help me with question no. 3?

I think the answer should be D. The idea of determinism has been introduced. Then it has been analysed and has been rejected on the basis of quantum theory.
Please help me with how it can be C.
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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2017, 04:53
akanksha.setiya wrote:
Can someone please help me with question no. 3?

I think the answer should be D. The idea of determinism has been introduced. Then it has been analysed and has been rejected on the basis of quantum theory.
Please help me with how it can be C.


D states its mathematical basis is questioned. The passage doesn't question how the calculations are done . It merely says we cant measure the properties of all the variables involved. Also Scientific determinism isn't rejected , it is applied in reduced form i.e., probable positions and velocities are determined.

Hope i made sense :)
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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2018, 10:24
Guys, please explain why the answer for question 4 is D?

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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2018, 12:36
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Suluzhan wrote:
Guys, please explain why the answer for question 4 is D?

Posted from my mobile device

Hi Suluzhan, I hope that I can help :-)

4. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s conclusion in the passage’s final sentence?
A. Some physicists believe quantum mechanics will eventually be discarded in favor of a new theory.
B. Physicists still use Newton’s laws of motion to calculate the velocities and positions of planets and stars.
C. Even if the position and velocity of a particle were known, predicting the future would be impossible because there are too many other variables to calculate.
D. There is little to no chance that the modern theory of quantum mechanics will be overturned by another theory.
E. No scientists are pursuing studies in the field of determinism.

Last sentence:
Quote:
Unfortunately, under modern physics theories, that is far as any researcher can go in predicting the future.


D tells us that the theory of quantum mechanics will be valid for a long time. This matches very well with the last sentence, which states that the quantum mechanics theory is the most advanced theory scientists can ever develop. If you look at the other answer choices you will realize that they aren't strenghteners at all or weaker strenghteners.

Hope that helps :-)

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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2018, 12:46
Experts

Why isn't the answer to Q1 C??
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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2018, 13:23
prateek176 wrote:
Experts

Why isn't the answer to Q1 C??

Hi prateek176:

Quote:
1. The passage suggests that if scientific determinism were true
A. scientists would, in theory, be able to predict the future
B. all the particles in the universe would have a measurable position and velocity
C. the theory of quantum mechanics would be false
D. Schrodinger’s equation could be used to calculate any particle’s position
E. the quantum mechanics revolution would not have occurred


We need to connect the pieces of information about scientific determinism and quantum mechanics.

Quote:
Laplace argued that if one knew the position and velocity of all the particles in the universe at a given time, the laws of physics would be able to predict the future state of the universe.

This is the main statement about scientific determinism. It says that we can predict the future state of the universe, if we know both the position and the velocity of all particles.

Quote:
Quantum mechanics introduced the world to the idea of the uncertainty principle, which stated that it was impossible to accurately measure both the position and the velocity of a particle at one time

This is the main statement about quantum mechanis. This states that we can't determine position and velocity of a particle at the same time.

If we combine both statements we can infer that if scientific determinism were true it would disprove quantum mechanics.

Does that make sense to you? :-)
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Re: Newton’s surprising success at developing the laws of motion, as well   [#permalink] 03 Apr 2018, 13:23
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