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# Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are

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Senior Manager
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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2006, 08:20
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Difficulty:

5% (low)

Question Stats:

86% (00:36) correct 14% (00:40) wrong based on 2731 sessions

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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 13:00
2
3
tejal777 wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

OA:

Is the OA C ?

Idiom, Parallel construction

Not by X, But by Y

caused not by (stress, alcohol, or rich foods), but by (a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.)
##### General Discussion
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2006, 21:30
1
1
C it is.

Between B and C. C has the correct construction of "not by X, but by Y"
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 13:18
3
tejal777 wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

OA:

Hi
this question tests your knowledge of parallelism

The correct idiom is "not X but Y". X and Y must be parallel

Note that A and B have a construction "not CAUSED ........ but Y'
If the writer wants to write that way, it should be "not CAUSED X, but CAUSED Y"

In this case, X and Y both have to have a "by" inside them.
The only alternative that has a structure "caused not by X, but by Y" is C

sounds good?

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 14:26
1
yes C - parallelism "not by x but by Y"
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Re: Recently physicians have determined  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 03:35
Hey

According to option C the sentence structure is that
Recent physicians have .... are caused NOT X BUT Y.
Here " are caused " is parallel to both X and Y. Hence we need not repeat it at Y.
This structure can also be rephrased as:
Recent physicians have... are NOT X BUT Y.
But in this case "cause" has to be included in both the parts X and Y.

Hope it clarifies.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 03:43
ksp, thanks for your reply. Just before you wrote, I thought about it and came to the same conclusion:

Quote:
Recent physicians have... are NOT X BUT Y.
But in this case "cause" has to be included in both the parts X and Y.

Thanks again.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 10:55
nonameee wrote:
ksp, thanks for your reply. Just before you wrote, I thought about it and came to the same conclusion:

Quote:
Recent physicians have... are NOT X BUT Y.
But in this case "cause" has to be included in both the parts X and Y.

Thanks again.

Minor clarification - actually the sentence structure is

"caused not by X...., but by Y.."

The word "by" should be on both sides of the comma.

So this is an X&Y Consistency Question (Framework #6).
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2015, 23:38
This question tests parallelism issue. Not ... but idiom.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2015, 06:50
1
Straight away C. maintains parallelism.

A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but (but should by followed by "by") Wrong
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by ("are" is extra here) Wrong
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by (not by....but by) Correct
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but (need "by" after "but") Wrong
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by ("are" is extra) Wrong
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2015, 01:12
Ergenekon wrote:
This question tests parallelism issue. Not ... but idiom.

I have one question. In option B, is "are" in "but are" used as a verb? If yes, then "not caused (verb)" would be parallel to "but are(verb)" and would be correct.

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2016, 02:06
1
Top Contributor
rishabchoraria wrote:
Ergenekon wrote:
This question tests parallelism issue. Not ... but idiom.

I have one question. In option B, is "are" in "but are" used as a verb? If yes, then "not caused (verb)" would be parallel to "but are(verb)" and would be correct.

Almost anything in a sentence can be made parallel to a similar Parallel Element.

we know by spotting Parallel Markers(here NOT X BUT Y)—words that link or contrast items and that force those items to be parallel

"NOT Caused by.......BUT are by........" is not paralleled
"NOT Caused by......BUT caused by......" is paralleled
"caused NOT by......BUT by......" is paralled

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2016, 07:30
tejal777 wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

The question is totally Parallelism issue. Here the correct answer is C. But, my question is: WHY not B. B makes parallelism to me!
B. NOT (tag)+CAUSED (verb)+by+something....................BUT (tag)+ARE (verb)+by+Something
Indicate parallelism to each other.
Thanks...
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2016, 08:45
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iMyself wrote:
But, my question is: WHY not B. B makes parallelism to me!
B. NOT (tag)+CAUSED (verb)+by+something....................BUT (tag)+ARE (verb)+by+Something
Indicate parallelism to each other.

Hi iMyself, the short answer is that caused is not used as a verb here, but as a participle.

An easier way would be to do a XYZ Analysis (as per our book Sentence Correction Nirvana). With B, the structure would be:

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

So, the structure is: C Not X but Y, where C is the structure of the sentence outside the XY deconstruct.

C: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are
X: caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods
Y: are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach

Since C is outside the XY deconstruct, C must make sense with both X and Y.

i) Is C making sense with X?

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods. - Seems fine.

ii) Is C making sense with Y?

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach - Clearly not correct (are is repeated twice).

Since C is not making sense with Y, B is incorrect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the framework of XYZ deconstruct, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2016, 23:35
Concept Tested : Parallelism - Not x but y
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but --> Required Not by X but by Y
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by --> "caused by" is not parallel to "are by" ==> Caused is not a verb
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by --> Correct Parallelism
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but --> Required Not by X but by Y
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by --> Required Not verb/by but verb/by
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2017, 07:25
Is option D wrong because of "and rich foods"? "by" after "but" in option D should be implicit and not necessarily required.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2017, 08:58
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It doesn't matter much whether the disease is caused by the factors individually or severally or by a combination just two. The more important thing is that except C, all others are instant dropouts due to improper correlative parallelism.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 12:09
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2017, 02:31
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but - Parallelism issue - ‘caused by stress…” and “a bacterium” are not parallel
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by - “caused by stress” and “are by a bacterium” are not parallel
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by - Correct
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but - “by stress” and “a bacterium” are not parallel. The first is a prepositional phrase; the second is a noun.
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by - “by stress” and “are by a bacterium” are not parallel. The first is a prepositional phrase; the second one starts with a verb

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are  [#permalink]

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