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# Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster

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BSchool Forum Moderator
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Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2015, 23:07
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Question 1
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71% (01:40) correct 29% (01:49) wrong based on 546

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Question 2
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40% (00:40) correct 60% (00:45) wrong based on 563

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Question 3
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48% (01:12) correct 52% (01:05) wrong based on 537

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Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster than the speed of light involve a remarkable phenomenon called quantum tunneling, in which particles travel through solid barriers that appear to be impenetrable.If you throw a ball at a wall, you expect it to bounce back, not to pass straight through it. Yet subatomic particles perform the equivalent feat. Quantum theory says that there is a distinct, albeit small, probability that such a particle(10) will tunnel its way through a barrier;the probability declines exponentially as the thickness of the barrier increases.Though the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling was noted as early as 1932, not until 1955 was it hypothesized—by Wigner and Eisenbud—that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light. Their grounds were calculations that suggested that the time
it takes a particle to tunnel through a barrier increases with the thickness of the barrier until tunneling time reaches a maximum; beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness. This would imply that once maximum tunneling time is reached, tunneling speed will increase without limit as barrier thickness increases. Several recent experiments have supported this hypothesis that tunneling particles sometimes reach superluminal speed. According to measurements performed by Raymond Chiao and colleagues, for example, photons can pass through an optical filter at 1.7 times the speed of light.

The Author of the passage mentions calculations about tunneling time and barrier thickness in order to
A) suggest that tunneling time is unrelated to barrier thickness
B) explain the evidence by which Winger and Eisenbud discovered the phenomenon of tunneling
C) describe data recently challenged by Raymond Chiao and colleagues
D) question why particles engaged in quantum tunneling rarely achieve extremely high speeds
E) explain the basis for Winger and Eisenbud's hypothesis

The passage implies that if tunneling time reached no maximum in increasing with barrier thickness, then
A) Tunneling speed would increase with barrier thickness
B) Tunneling speed would decline with barrier thickness
C) Tunneling speed would vary with barrer thickness
D) Tunneling speed would not be expected to increase without limit
E) Successful tunneling would occur even less frequently than it does

Which of the following statements about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling can be inferred from the passage?
A) They found it difficult to increase barrier thickness continually.
B) They anticipated the later results of Chiao and his colleagues.
C) They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light.
D) They were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling.
E) They made use of photons to study the phenomenon of tunneling.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

Last edited by bb on 05 Jul 2017, 13:24, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2015, 20:18
5
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Introduction of Quantum theory.
noted as early as 1932, but hypothesized by Wigner and Eisenbud in 1955 —that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.
evidence and other supporting statements with photon example.

The Author of the passage mentions calculations about tunneling time and barrier thickness in order to..............in order to indicates a Logic question
A) suggest that tunneling time is unrelated to barrier thickness.....................time increases with thickness before reaching max value. So unrelated is Opposite.
B) explain the evidence by which Winger and Eisenbud discovered the phenomenon of tunneling......................The theory is hypothesized not discovered
C) describe data recently challenged by Raymond Chiao and colleagues............This appears much later in the passage.
D) question why particles engaged in quantum tunneling rarely achieve extremely high speeds.............rarely is extreme as this is not mentioned in the passage.
E) explain the basis for Winger and Eisenbud's hypothesis...........correct choice

138 The passage implies that if tunneling time reached no maximum in increasing with barrier thickness, then
A) Tunneling speed would increase with barrier thickness............Opposite
B) Tunneling speed would decline with barrier thickness.............not sure
C) Tunneling speed would vary with barrer thickness.............same as B
D) Tunneling speed would not be expected to increase without limit............correct
E) Successful tunneling would occur even less frequently than it does...........not mentioned in the passage

139 Which of the following statements about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling can be inferred from the passage?
A) They found it difficult to increase barrier thickness continually............not mentioned in the passage
B) They anticipated the later results of Chiao and his colleagues.............not true as chiao appeared much later in passage with no related info.
C) They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light...........correct choice. This is the reason why they could not hypothesize the theory.
D) They were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling..........Though they just quoted theory we cannot say this.
E) They made use of photons to study the phenomenon of tunneling..........mentioned in the end need not be inferred.
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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2015, 05:28
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Can we please discuss option B for Q2

The passage implies that if tunneling time reached no maximum in increasing with barrier thickness, then
A) Tunneling speed would increase with barrier thickness
B) Tunneling speed would decline with barrier thickness
C) Tunneling speed would vary with barrer thickness
D) Tunneling speed would not be expected to increase without limit
E) Successful tunneling would occur even less frequently than it does

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2015, 07:42
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Steinbeck

Their grounds were calculations that suggested that the time
it takes a particle to tunnel through a barrier increases with the thickness of the barrier until tunneling time reaches a maximum; beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness. This would imply that once maximum tunneling time is reached, tunneling speed will increase without limit as barrier thickness increases. Several recent experiments have supported this hypothesis that tunneling particles sometimes reach superluminal speed. According to measurements performed by Raymond Chiao and colleagues, for example, photons can pass through an optical filter at 1.7 times the speed of light

Look at the bold part, we can infer from that.

Thanks,
SR

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2015, 10:03
Shree9975 wrote:
Steinbeck

Their grounds were calculations that suggested that the time
it takes a particle to tunnel through a barrier increases with the thickness of the barrier until tunneling time reaches a maximum; beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness. This would imply that once maximum tunneling time is reached, tunneling speed will increase without limit as barrier thickness increases. Several recent experiments have supported this hypothesis that tunneling particles sometimes reach superluminal speed. According to measurements performed by Raymond Chiao and colleagues, for example, photons can pass through an optical filter at 1.7 times the speed of light

Look at the bold part, we can infer from that.

Thanks,
SR

Thanks Shree9975, that makes sense.

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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04 May 2017, 08:35
Their grounds were calculations that suggested that the time
it takes a particle to tunnel through a barrier increases with the thickness of the barrier until tunneling time reaches a maximum; beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness.

Since the passage says that the time taken increases, as the thickness increases

Can't we infer the speed would decline with increasing thickness?

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2017, 06:26
Hi - I have a more fundamental question re: how to approach this technical essay

---- My understanding is not go over the details when doing the passage the first time atleast...if you dont understand a detail, dont get bogged down

But 138 --- asks that i understand what the details mean exactly ...

How would you suggest some approach this RC passage ...understand the details like

---- beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness

---- once maximum tunneling time is reached, tunneling speed will increase w/o limit as barrier thickness increases ....

How to understand such statements ?

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2017, 05:16
Could experts please elaborate on the 3rd question explaining why exactly is option D incorrect .

The official explanation says "The passage indicates that by 1932, investigators had noted the rapidity of quantum tunneling; although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so."

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2017, 19:02
kunal1608 wrote:
Could experts please elaborate on the 3rd question explaining why exactly is option D incorrect .

The official explanation says "The passage indicates that by 1932, investigators had noted the rapidity of quantum tunneling; although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so."

Quote:
Which of the following statements about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling can be inferred from the passage?
A) They found it difficult to increase barrier thickness continually.
B) They anticipated the later results of Chiao and his colleagues.
C) They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light.
D) They were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling.
E) They made use of photons to study the phenomenon of tunneling.

Refer to the following lines:
Quote:
Though the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling was noted as early as 1932, not until 1955 was it hypothesized—by Wigner and Eisenbud—that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

What do we know about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling? We know that they noted the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling. We also know that they did NOT hypothesize that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

From that information, can we infer that "they were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling."? Not necessarily. Perhaps they observed instances of successful tunneling and perhaps they did not (as described in the OE, "although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so"). Regardless, we certainly cannot infer that they were UNABLE to observe instances of successful tunneling.

In other words, we know that they might have observed instances of successful tunneling, but we cannot infer that they were unable to do so.

I hope that helps explain why (D) must be eliminated!
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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 02:54
Got all correct in 7.5 minutes

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Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2017, 06:30
Could expert please help with the 2nd question? I went over the passage and the official answer several times but didn't figure it out.

Upon to my understanding - the tunneling time grows as the thickness of the barriers grow, until the tunneling time reaches his maximum ("the time it takes a particle to tunnel through barrier increases with the thickness of the barrier until tunneling time reaches a maximum"). Than the tunneling time doesn't affected by the thickness of the barrier ("beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness"). The passage added and state that the last fact "'imply that once maximum tunneling time is reached, tunneling speed will increase without limit as barrier thickness increases". Here i got lost. I don't understand the implication as well as the final answer to the question.

GMATNinja

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 22:45
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Expert's post
oryahalom wrote:
Could expert please help with the 2nd question? I went over the passage and the official answer several times but didn't figure it out.

Upon to my understanding - the tunneling time grows as the thickness of the barriers grow, until the tunneling time reaches his maximum ("the time it takes a particle to tunnel through barrier increases with the thickness of the barrier until tunneling time reaches a maximum"). Than the tunneling time doesn't affected by the thickness of the barrier ("beyond that maximum, tunneling time stays the same regardless of barrier thickness"). The passage added and state that the last fact "'imply that once maximum tunneling time is reached, tunneling speed will increase without limit as barrier thickness increases". Here i got lost. I don't understand the implication as well as the final answer to the question.

Quote:
The passage implies that if tunneling time reached no maximum in increasing with barrier thickness, then
A) Tunneling speed would increase with barrier thickness
B) Tunneling speed would decline with barrier thickness
C) Tunneling speed would vary with barrer thickness
D) Tunneling speed would not be expected to increase without limit
E) Successful tunneling would occur even less frequently than it does

According to the passage, the time it takes for the particle to tunnel will increase until the tunneling time reaches a certain maximum. As the barrier thickness (the distance traveled by the particle) is increased, the time it takes the particle to cross the barrier also increases, but only up to a certain point. After that maximum tunneling time has been reached, we could theoretically double the thickness of the barrier and, since the tunneling time cannot increase any further, the speed of the particle must be doubled.

In other words, if the tunneling time has a maximum, the speed of the particle must increase without limit as the barrier thickness is increased.

But the question asks, "What if there was no maximum tunneling time?" In that case, the tunneling time CAN increase indefinitely as barrier thickness is increased. Thus, we would NOT expect the speed to increase without limit as barrier thickness is increased. Instead, as the thickness is increased, the tunneling time would increase and the speed could remain relatively constant.

I hope that helps!
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Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2017, 00:10
GMATNinja wrote:
kunal1608 wrote:
Could experts please elaborate on the 3rd question explaining why exactly is option D incorrect .

The official explanation says "The passage indicates that by 1932, investigators had noted the rapidity of quantum tunneling; although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so."

Quote:
Which of the following statements about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling can be inferred from the passage?
A) They found it difficult to increase barrier thickness continually.
B) They anticipated the later results of Chiao and his colleagues.
C) They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light.
D) They were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling.
E) They made use of photons to study the phenomenon of tunneling.

Refer to the following lines:
Quote:
Though the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling was noted as early as 1932, not until 1955 was it hypothesized—by Wigner and Eisenbud—that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

What do we know about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling? We know that they noted the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling. We also know that they did NOT hypothesize that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

From that information, can we infer that "they were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling."? Not necessarily. Perhaps they observed instances of successful tunneling and perhaps they did not (as described in the OE, "although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so"). Regardless, we certainly cannot infer that they were UNABLE to observe instances of successful tunneling.

In other words, we know that they might have observed instances of successful tunneling, but we cannot infer that they were unable to do so.

I hope that helps explain why (D) must be eliminated!

GMATNinja
I have a similar question, when they noted QT in 1932, how can C be a correct option? "They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light." They noted it but were unable to hypothesis. Can you pls help.

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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2017, 10:26
1
KUDOS
ManishKM1 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
kunal1608 wrote:
Could experts please elaborate on the 3rd question explaining why exactly is option D incorrect .

The official explanation says "The passage indicates that by 1932, investigators had noted the rapidity of quantum tunneling; although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so."

Quote:
Which of the following statements about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling can be inferred from the passage?
A) They found it difficult to increase barrier thickness continually.
B) They anticipated the later results of Chiao and his colleagues.
C) They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light.
D) They were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling.
E) They made use of photons to study the phenomenon of tunneling.

Refer to the following lines:
Quote:
Though the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling was noted as early as 1932, not until 1955 was it hypothesized—by Wigner and Eisenbud—that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

What do we know about the earliest scientific investigators of quantum tunneling? We know that they noted the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling. We also know that they did NOT hypothesize that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

From that information, can we infer that "they were unable to observe instances of successful tunneling."? Not necessarily. Perhaps they observed instances of successful tunneling and perhaps they did not (as described in the OE, "although this does not entail that they observed the phenomenon, it is consistent with their having been able to do so"). Regardless, we certainly cannot infer that they were UNABLE to observe instances of successful tunneling.

In other words, we know that they might have observed instances of successful tunneling, but we cannot infer that they were unable to do so.

I hope that helps explain why (D) must be eliminated!

GMATNinja
I have a similar question, when they noted QT in 1932, how can C be a correct option? "They did not suppose that tunneling particles could travel faster than light." They noted it but were unable to hypothesis. Can you pls help.

the extreme rapidity of quantum tunneling was noted as early as 1932, not until 1955 was it hypothesized—by Wigner and Eisenbud—that tunneling particles sometimes travel faster than light.

Earlier scientific investigators noted the extreme rapidity.... but it was only after 1955 that W&E hypothesised that sometimes particles can travel faster than light.
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Re: Most attempts by physicists to send particles faster   [#permalink] 18 Aug 2017, 10:26
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