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The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject

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The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

(A) which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
(B) causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
(C) which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
(D) causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
(E) which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 735

https://www.nytimes.com/1979/02/04/archives/smallpox-is-not-dead.html

The research at the Atlanta lab had its beginnings in 1796 when an English country physician named Edward Jenner found that if a person was deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, he would be immune from smallpox. Although the practice of vaccinating people with cowpox spread quickly to other countries, smallpox maintained its hold on most of the world until the 20th century. Even after immunization against it became widespread in the industrialized nations, the majority of third‐world nations continued to suffer from it, at least until 1967, when an intensified international campaign was launched.

Jenner and Cowpox

(A) Verb (are)

(B) Modifier / Meaning (causing); Verb (become); Idiom (become immune from)

(C) Verb (are)

(D) Modifier / Meaning (causing); Verb (became); Idiom (became immune from)

(E) CORRECT


First glance

The beginning of each answer is either comma-which or comma-causing, indicating a modifier issue. Does this modifier refer just to the main noun before it or to the entire preceding clause?

Issues

(1) Modifier / Meaning: causing

In this problem, the issue that you spotted during the first glance might be a little tricky. Decide whether you want to start there or whether you want to start with anything else that you may have noticed as you read the original sentence.

Does the modifier (which caused only a mild illness) refer just to the main noun before it, cowpox? Or does the modifier (causing only a mild illness) refer to the entire preceding clause (if subjects were deliberately infected)?

If the modifier were referring to the entire previous clause, then the sentence would be saying that deliberately infecting someone causes only a mild illness, implying that the disease would be more severe if people caught it naturally. This is illogical; either way, the person still has the same disease. The modifier must be referring just to the noun cowpox. Eliminate choices (B) and (D) for an illogical meaning.

(2) Verb: are; become; became

The non-underlined portion of the sentence sets up a conditional structure: If subjects were deliberately infected…then what?

For the second half, answers (A), (B), and (C) use a present-tense verb (are or become). Were is in past tense, however, so present tense doesn't match. Eliminate choices (A), (B), and (C).

Choice (D) does use the simple past tense became, but even simple past is not good enough here. The were verb in the conditional structure indicates that the sentence is discussing an event that may or may not happen. This second action is conditional on the first action having already happened: If someone were deliberately infected, then that person would become immune. Eliminate (D) for a faulty verb tense match as well.

(3) Idiom: become / became immune from

The choices switch between immune from and immune to. Which is correct?

In general, immune to is acceptable to use. It is sometimes possible to use immune from, but become immune from is not acceptable. When using the word become, say become immune to. Eliminate choices (B) and (D) for a faulty idiom.

Note that answer (A) uses immune from but does not contain a form of the word become. This can arguably be acceptable; the OG solution does not call this out as incorrect, so assume that it is okay for the purposes of the GMAT.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (E) uses the noun modifier structure which caused to refer to the noun cowpox. This choice also uses the correct verb tense to finish the conditional structure: If someone were infected with cowpox, then that person would become immune to smallpox.

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Originally posted by AbdurRakib on 13 Jun 2017, 11:52.
Last edited by Bunuel on 22 Oct 2018, 23:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2017, 15:34
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

A. which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
B. causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
D. causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This is an excellent question about Edward Jenner (1749-1823), the man who conceived of the idea of vaccines.

This has a relatively straightforward solution.

Split #1: verb form
The first action, "if experimental subjects were . . . infected" is in the subjunctive. We have to match this in the second clause. The present "they are" or "they become" are out. The past tense "they became" is a little closer, but the only one that is correct, also in the subjunctive, is "they would become."

Split #2: idiom
The correct idiom is "immune to," whereas "immune from" is 100% incorrect.

Because of both of these splits, the only possible answer is (E).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Oct 2017, 03:54
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Easy one.

If (simple past) , then (either simple past if event is fact / habit)
OR
If (simple past) , then (would +verb) in case of uncertainty.

Also causing in incorrectly used verb-ing modifier.
We need relative pronoun which to refer to
noun cowpox.
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Originally posted by adkikani on 01 Jul 2017, 03:58.
Last edited by adkikani on 30 Oct 2017, 03:54, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Jul 2017, 06:20
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Imo E
Correct idiom is immune to
This is a conditional sentence so we have to use conditional structure for past .
Example
I am immune to insults or flattery .

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Originally posted by arvind910619 on 13 Jun 2017, 23:05.
Last edited by arvind910619 on 13 Jul 2017, 06:20, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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mikemcgarry wrote:
Split #2: idiom
The correct idiom is "immune to," whereas "immune from" is 100% incorrect.


Hi Mike! Hope you've been well. :)

I thought it might be worthwhile clarifying your comment here, because it might sound like a statement of a general rule. It can definitely sometimes be correct to say "immune from". In a legal context, it is the only correct idiom:

"In Country X, diplomats are immune from prosecution for minor offenses"

Here, it would not be idiomatic to say "immune to". In the question in the original post above though, when talking about infection or disease, "immune to" is always correct. In other situations, I think either usage can be fine. Googling quickly, I saw a headline that read something like "Wall Street is not immune from the effects of the financial crisis", and there it seems to me "immune to" and "immune from" would both be acceptable.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 05:00
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hi ameyaprabhu

I am not expert,but let me share my two cents.

By default, which and that
are noun modifiers and shall obey touch rule,
simply meaning the noun they modify must be placed as close as possible.

You may check an article by GMATNinja here

There are few exceptions as mentioned in above post. Do try to search for another
noun for which / that to modify only when closest noun does not make sense as in few OG examples in above post.

Coming to your query, I do not see a reason for which to jump over cowpox and modify experimental subjects.
Here if you read sentence closely - cowpox makes lots more sense to cause mild illness than any other noun.

Let me know if this helps!

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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

A. which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
B. causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
D. causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to


The past tense "they became" is a little closer, but the only one that is correct, also in the subjunctive, is "they would become."

The correct idiom is "immune to," whereas "immune from" is 100% incorrect.


Hey mikemcgarry,

Thank you for the detailed explanation of the question! Follow up query: isn't the past tense "they became immune" acceptable in this sentence? Because this research took place in the past, this situation is not hypothetical (necessitating the subjunctive), but rather conditional.

If he infected subjects with cowpox (and he did), then the subjects became immune to smallpox.

Here's a similar example:

Quote:
Maria Bonaparte put up the ransom that the Nazis insisted on if Freud was to be allowed to leave Vienna.

(A) if Freud was to be allowed
(B) if Freud were allowed
(C) should Freud be allowed
(D) if they will allow Freud
(E) should allowance be made for Freud


The OA is (A) because, from a historically factual standpoint, Freud was and was always going to be allowed to leave Vienna - the Nazis just wanted the ransom first.

In our example with Jenner, of course, "would become" in choice (E) is acceptable, and (D) can be ruled out because of the unidiomatic use of "immune from." But I would argue that simple past tense in (D) would be preferred if not for the idiomatic error later in the sentence.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2017, 09:56
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NicoleJaneway wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

A. which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
B. causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
D. causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to


The past tense "they became" is a little closer, but the only one that is correct, also in the subjunctive, is "they would become."

The correct idiom is "immune to," whereas "immune from" is 100% incorrect.


Hey mikemcgarry,

Thank you for the detailed explanation of the question! Follow up query: isn't the past tense "they became immune" acceptable in this sentence? Because this research took place in the past, this situation is not hypothetical (necessitating the subjunctive), but rather conditional.

If he infected subjects with cowpox (and he did), then the subjects became immune to smallpox.

Here's a similar example:

Quote:
Maria Bonaparte put up the ransom that the Nazis insisted on if Freud was to be allowed to leave Vienna.

(A) if Freud was to be allowed
(B) if Freud were allowed
(C) should Freud be allowed
(D) if they will allow Freud
(E) should allowance be made for Freud


The OA is (A) because, from a historically factual standpoint, Freud was and was always going to be allowed to leave Vienna - the Nazis just wanted the ransom first.

In our example with Jenner, of course, "would become" in choice (E) is acceptable, and (D) can be ruled out because of the unidiomatic use of "immune from." But I would argue that simple past tense in (D) would be preferred if not for the idiomatic error later in the sentence.

Dear NicoleJaneway,

I'm happy to respond. :-) My friend, I commend you for asking a very intelligent and thoughtful question. :-)

In the first sentence about Jenner, the tense in the OA is necessary to indicate a time lag. We don't use this kind of inoculation any more, but if we did, inoculating someone today would mean that this person would become immune, not today, but in a few days. It's not instantaneous, and this time lag is significant to the situation.

Here's the sentence, as you suggest, with the simple past:
The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they became immune to smallpox.
Technically, the implication of this is that getting the inoculation of cowpox and becoming immune to smallpox are absolutely simultaneous, as if the inoculation has an instantaneous body-wide effect, quicker than lightning. That's not consistent with the meaning of the situation and not realistic at all. Part of the information in the sentence is the time lag between these two events, and we need the conditional "would become" to indicate this.

In a way, what follows the verb "found" is a kind of indirect speech, and so we need to use the rules for sequences of tenses. Again, these rules would favor the use of the conditional over the simple past.

The other sentence, about Freud, is not quite the same. Here, there was no meaningful time lag. In other words, the Nazi's getting the ransom cash in their hot little hands and the granting of the permission for Freud to leave essentially would be simultaneous. For all intents and purposes, there was no meaningful time lag between these two events, so the verb is under no obligation to hold any kind of information about a time lag. That's why we the simple past is enough here.

My intelligent friend, does this make sense? I will be happy to answer any further questions you have or to listen to any additional points you would like to make.

Mike :-)
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The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Nov 2018, 10:29
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 735

The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

A. which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
B. causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
D. causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to


The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects . . .

We have a conditional sentence here, and with conditional sentences, we need to match up the tenses .

1st conditional:
If (simple present) then simple future
If something happens then something else will happen
EXAMPLES:
If Barb sells her car, then she will buy a scooter.
If you touch Neil’s feet, he will cry.

2nd conditional:
If (simple past) then (clause beginning with would)
If something happened then something would happen
EXAMPLES:
If Barb sold her car, then she would buy a scooter.
If you touched Neil’s feet, he would cry.

3rd conditional:
If (past perfect) then (clause beginning with would have)
If something had happened then something would have happened
EXAMPLES:
If Barb had sold her car, then she would have bought a scooter.
If you had touched Neil’s feet, he would have cried.


The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox...
Here we have the simple past tense were infected (i.e., 2nd conditional), so the second half of this conditional must have a clause beginning with would

Only answer choice E has this structure.

Answer: E

Cheers,
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Originally posted by GMATPrepNow on 11 Dec 2017, 15:18.
Last edited by GMATPrepNow on 13 Nov 2018, 10:29, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2018, 11:55
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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a close look at this question, and see where we can eliminate options quickly to get to the right answer! To get started, here is the original question with major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

A. which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
B. causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
D. causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to

After a quick glance over each option, a few major differences pop up:

1. immune from / immune to
2. are / become / became
3. caused / causing / causes

Let's start with #1 on our list: immune from vs. immune to. When talking about diseases, we say a person is "immune to" the disease, not "immune from" it. We can eliminate options A, B, and D because they use the incorrect "immune from."

This leaves us with only options C & E, so let's take a closer look at each option:

C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to

This option is INCORRECT because the non-underlined part of the sentence uses the past tense verb "found," so we need to use past tense verbs to match. Using the present tense "causes" and "are" aren't consistent with the intended meaning (that all of this happened in the past).

E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to

This is the CORRECT option because it uses consistent past tense verbs throughout, and it uses the correct form of "immune to" to refer to a disease.

There you go! Option E is the correct answer!


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The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Oct 2018, 20:36
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Usage of IF..THEN clauses -

Note - It is not mandatory to use "then" in an "IF THEN clause".
It can be - If...., then outcome
- If....., outcome.
- Outcome, If.....

Now coming to the main point-

1. IF CLAUSE --- SIMPLE PRESENT = THEN CLAUSE --- SIMPLE PRESENT OR SIMPLE FUTURE

2. IF CLAUSE --- SIMPLE PAST = THEN CLAUSE --- SIMPLE PAST OR WOULD + VERB

3. IF CLAUSE --- PAST PERFECT = THEN CLAUSE --- WOULD HAVE + VERB

Hope it helps.

Originally posted by blitzkriegxX on 03 Oct 2018, 00:06.
Last edited by blitzkriegxX on 23 Oct 2018, 20:36, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 23:45
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from smallpox.

A. which caused only a mild illness, they are immune from
B. causing only a mild illness, they become immune from
C. which causes only a mild illness, they are immune to
D. causing only a mild illness, they became immune from
E. which caused only a mild illness, they would become immune to

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This is an excellent question about Edward Jenner (1749-1823), the man who conceived of the idea of vaccines.

This has a relatively straightforward solution.

Split #1: verb form
The first action, "if experimental subjects were . . . infected" is in the subjunctive. We have to match this in the second clause. The present "they are" or "they become" are out. The past tense "they became" is a little closer, but the only one that is correct, also in the subjunctive, is "they would become."

Split #2: idiom
The correct idiom is "immune to," whereas "immune from" is 100% incorrect.

Because of both of these splits, the only possible answer is (E).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi Mike, completely missed the idiom and misread the answers...
However, let's assume both D and E would use "immune to", would E still be the correct one? I guess D would be more accurate since it keeps the past tense.

Correct me if I m wrong :) thanks for your help!
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The English physician Edward Jenner found that if experimental subject  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2018, 17:53
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This question sounds more like the second conditional which stipulates that when we use simple past in the if clause, then we have to use the modal 'would' in the main clause, subjunctive or no subjunctive.

Since scientific postulates are more of universal facts and not fancies or speculatives, they can even be termed as either zero conditionals or first conditionals.

Look at the following sentences.

1. Scientists conclude that if experimental subjects are deliberately infected with cowpox, they are immune to smallpox. -- Zero conditional

2. Scientists conclude that if experimental subjects are deliberately infected with cowpox, they will be immune to smallpox. -- First conditional

3. Scientists concluded that when experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, they became immune to smallpox -- A simple indicative clause without any conditional or subjunctive.

4. Scientists concluded that if experimental subjects were deliberately infected with cowpox, they would become immune to smallpox-- Second conditional

As seen above, if we are going to include an 'if' in the subordinate clause, then the modal 'would' becomes imperative in the main clause. Therefore, Ans E is okay.
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