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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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Caas wrote:
leeye84 wrote:
126. As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize
(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize
(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize

The question obviously tests for parallelism. Please explain.


Another B.
Parallel structures: enable to sell, to standardize, and to predict
the trick is "taking advantage". It is a gerund structure which describes the verb "sell".
- To sell how?
-Taking advantage of .....
When choosing among the answers first eliminate D and E, because "take" is not parallel to "to sell". Then realize that "taking" describes the infinitive "to sell" and then among A,B and C choose the one with "standardize" in the parallel form.



It is not really a gerund structure. It's a participial phrase.

Commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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leeye84 wrote:
126. As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize
(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize
(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize

The question obviously tests for parallelism. Please explain.



B for llism.

"taking............" is participle modifying phrase.
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Re: fisheries [#permalink]
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B is correct. "to sell" and "taking advantage of the off-season demand" are to be considered one single idea. Otherwise B is also not correct because if they are not together, the format should be "to sell", "to take advantage....." "to standardize" and "to....". Note that the 1st "to" has to be followed by all "to". This does not happen with "taking advantage" which means that it is a part of "to sell".
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Re: farming of lobsters [#permalink]
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IMO B. Paralleled structure: ... enable fisheries to sell ..., to standardize ... and to predict ..... Besides, taking advantage of off-season is a participle phrase modifying for the first action
In D & E, if we add to before take, we will make a paralleled structure with 4 elements. However, it is not, so it's wrong


As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize

(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize --> the best

(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing

(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing -->lacking to before take to create another parallel element

(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize --> lacking to before take to create another parallel element
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
yes , B is the answer , however why there is no need to make this part -taking advantage of off-season demand - parallel with the rest of the sentence

Why is E wrong ?
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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ichha148 wrote:
yes , B is the answer , however why there is no need to make this part -taking advantage of off-season demand - parallel with the rest of the sentence

Why is E wrong ?


E wouldn't be parallel, you would need "to take"

taking advantage isn't part of the list, rather, taking advantage is modifying
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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here's a 10-sec approach to solve the question ... okay, may be not 10, but let's say ... 20-secs .. still not bad!

'and to predict sales ..' is not underlined. find choices that are parallel to this.

only B & E have 'to standardize .. and to predict'
in E 'take advantage' is not parallel and is not the correct modifier ... 'taking advantage' is the correct modifier.

hence, B

HTH
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Re: fishing [#permalink]
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Ill go with B

... to sell,..... to standardize,.. to predict...

all are parellel

and since this is continous tense .. present contionus (taking) should be the main verb.

so B goes as apt answer
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As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize ....... SHOULD BE "TO STANDARDIZE".....IT'S A LIST.....

(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize.........CORRECT

(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing ....SHOULD BE "TO STANDARDIZE".....IT'S A LIST.....

(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing ........SHOULD BE "TO STANDARDIZE".....IT'S A LIST.....

(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize ..... TAKE ADVANTAGE CANNOT BE PART OF LIST, IT ONLY QUALIFIES THE PREVIOUS PART OF SENTENCE......
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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leeye84 wrote:
126. As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize
(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize
(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize


As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries
1.to sell the shellfish year-round--modifier modifying this action --taking advantage of off-season demand,
2.standardize its sizes and colors, and
3.to predict sales volume in advance.

Clearly sentence structure 2 is not a parallel entity in the list..and it is the only error here..

to standardize is the required change..B it is
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize
(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize
(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize

There are only three disparate things that commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries namely
1. to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, -- Here taking advantage is the process by which the fisheries sell year-round, hence is just one unit.
2. to standardize its sizes and colors, and
3. to predict sales volume in advance.
Since the non-underlined portion is marked with the infinitive, it is imperative that the infinitive marker accompany all the three factors. Therefore, B is the chosen answer. D is not the answer since if 'standardize' were to be taken as another factor, it should have been duly marked with the infinitive word 'to'.
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
commercial farming of lobsters will enable THREE things-- vch needs to be parallel..

to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, (Here taking advantage is the non-essential modifier which modifies the preceding clause)
to standardize its sizes and colors, and
to predict sales volume in advance.
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
daagh , you said in a previous explanation that we can not use an infinitive after a comma.


https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-members- ... 48494.html
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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MikeScarn

Can you please look into the given link below?

Quote:
https://www.chompchomp.com/terms/infinitivephrase.htm

When an infinitive phrase concludes a main clause, you need no punctuation to connect the two sentence parts. The pattern looks like this:

Main clause + no comma+ infinitive phrase.
Check out this example:
Janice and her friends went to the mall to flirt with the cute guys who congregate at the food court.


In the given example of shields and frames as a method, the infinitive phrase was concluding the sentence. Hence, it was unidiomatic.

However, we can't apply this rule to everywhere in which an infinitive is involved. Especially, in a list of infinitives, how can we afford not to use an infinitive?
Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize
(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize
(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing
(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize

In this SC, the final item is included as AND with COMMA. So, this is going to be the list of some items. But HOW many items GMAC add in their list? GMAC doesn't add more than 3 items (normally) in a list of item. Because there is NO logic to add SO MANY items in a list-this exam is not the gaining knowledge by adding so many items in a list!
So, what's is going on in this SC?
In non-underlined part(s), we already have 2 items (to sell, to predict) of this list. So, we're going to wait for one another item which starts with preposition to to make parallelism with other 2 items (to sell, to predict). In this SC, all the answer options contain 2 parts like 1) taking.........., 2) standardize.......... . So, the another item may be in part 1) or may be in part 2. In choice A, C, D, there is no to before both parts (part 1 and part 2). So, we can easily cross out choice A, C and D.
Now, we are left with choice B and E. Choice B starts with ING form with verb (take), but Choice E doesn't contain ING form with verb 'take'. So, it is the matter of meaning, totally!.
In this SC, "taking advantage of off-season demand" (adverbial modifier) is the direct result of "commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round". we can't use direct result of a statement simply with base form of verb (e.g., take). So, E is out.
So, the correct choice is .
Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
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Hi my honorable expert,
Is there any core difference between the following versions if number 2 makes sense?
Thanks__


1. As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

2. As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand,to standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.
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Re: As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enab [#permalink]
As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the shellfish year-round, taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize its sizes and colors, and to predict sales volume in advance.

(A) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardize --> need to + <verb> to connect "b]and[/b] to predict": A, C & D out
(B) taking advantage of off-season demand, to standardize --> correct: approach-1: taking advantage" is results of "enable(ment of) fisheries". so -ing form (taking) is required, approach-2: left w/ B
(C) taking advantage of off-season demand, standardizing --> same as A
(D) take advantage of off-season demand, standardizing--> same as A
(E) take advantage of off-season demand, to standardize --> approach-1: meaning issue, approach-2: take is not parallel to "to standardize & to predict"
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