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Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise

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Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Aug 2018, 20:05
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19% (01:31) correct 81% (01:43) wrong based on 1285 sessions

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Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise with new populations and new technologies. The solutions of these problems require new institutions as well as new political, economic, and social mechanisms. Yet institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly, new institutions should be given every chance of success.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly.

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement.

Source: GMAT TEST PREPARATION

I need more explanations why B is not correct. . Thank you.

Originally posted by yenpham9 on 06 Sep 2013, 10:40.
Last edited by workout on 11 Aug 2018, 20:05, edited 2 times in total.
Rename the topic.
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2013, 21:50
22
4
ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact 1: Now problems require new solutions.
Fact 2: The solutions of these problems require
New institutions - factor #1
--AND--
New political, economic, and social mechanisms - factor #2.
Fact 3: But factor #2: institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly.
Conclusion: Factor #1: new institutions should be given EVERY CHANCE of success.

KEY is to how translate correctly the conclusion. The fact says: new problems need new solutions, which require both factor (1) and factor (2). But because factor (2) grows slowly, so the key to have new solutions created is “give every chances of success” for (1): new institutions.

On the other hand, every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient.
Wrong. Out of scope. The main point is giving new institution EVERY CHANCES. Thus, it doesn’t matter whether the old institution are ineffective.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems
Wrong. TEMPTING but wrong. New institution solve ONLY existing problem? Nope, The stimulus clearly mentioned the existing of “NEW” problems (new problems arise ...). Why B narrows the scope to “existing problems”? B is incorrect because it does not cover enough.

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place.
Correct. C restates exactly what the conclusion wants to convey. “give every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly.
Wrong. Out of scope. Same as B. We do not discuss the old institutions. The main point is the creating of new institutions. It does not matter the old institutions exist or not. They are in different categories. Thus, D is wrong.

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement.
Wrong. The stimulus says we could ignore factor 2: the institutions and political and economic arrangements, because they grow slowly. Thus, the argument just focus on factor 1: the creating of new institutions which should be given EVERY CHANCES of success.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2013, 12:25
1
B cant be right. it talks about existing problems.
C cant be the OA
Need experts to look into this
Can you post the explanation
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2013, 01:18
1
pqhai wrote:
ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact 1: Now problems require new solutions.
Fact 2: The solutions of these problems require
New institutions - factor #1
--AND--
New political, economic, and social mechanisms - factor #2.
Fact 3: But factor #2: institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly.
Conclusion: Factor #1: new institutions should be given EVERY CHANCE of success.

KEY is to how translate correctly the conclusion. The fact says: new problems need new solutions, which require both factor (1) and factor (2). But because factor (2) grows slowly, so the key to have new solutions created is “give every chances of success” for (1): new institutions.

On the other hand, every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient.
Wrong. Out of scope. The main point is giving new institution EVERY CHANCES. Thus, it doesn’t matter whether the old institution are ineffective.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems
Wrong. TEMPTING but wrong. New institution solve ONLY existing problem? Nope, The stimulus clearly mentioned the existing of “NEW” problems (new problems arise ...). Why B narrows the scope to “existing problems”? B is incorrect because it does not cover enough.

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place.
Correct. C restates exactly what the conclusion wants to convey. “give every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly.
Wrong. Out of scope. Same as B. We do not discuss the old institutions. The main point is the creating of new institutions. It does not matter the old institutions exist or not. They are in different categories. Thus, D is wrong.

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement.
Wrong. The stimulus says we could ignore factor 2: the institutions and political and economic arrangements, because they grow slowly. Thus, the argument just focus on factor 1: the creating of new institutions which should be given EVERY CHANCES of success.

Hope it helps.

Hi There,
I chose A here. It says requires new institution. What underlying assumption could cause this statement? Also, from the explanation, if new fails create more. That means the old one were inefficient? Right? Also, give every chances of success => isnt this implies the new institution should be given chances? If this is the case then old institutions still exist, but chance should be given to new ones.

Thanks
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2013, 10:20
yenpham9 wrote:
Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise with new populations and new technologies. The solutions of these problems require new institutions as well as new political, economic, and social mechanisms. Yet institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly, new institutions should be given every chance of success.

Theoretically -

New Population and Technology-----> New Problems ------need-----> New Solutions-----> New Institutions & new political, economic, and social mechanisms

Practically ---- grow slowly

Solutions - New institutions should be given every chance of success.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient. - The passage talks not only about introduction of new institutions but it talks about new political, economic, and social mechanisms , so though this option seems promising it can be rejected.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems - True , fits better than (A)

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place. - We already know it from the passage , nothing new about it.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly. - Out of scope

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement. - True , we know it from the passage , nothing new about it.

PLZ Explain where I am missing ?
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2013, 09:32
Abhishek009 wrote:
yenpham9 wrote:
Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise with new populations and new technologies. The solutions of these problems require new institutions as well as new political, economic, and social mechanisms. Yet institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly, new institutions should be given every chance of success.

Theoretically -

New Population and Technology-----> New Problems ------need-----> New Solutions-----> New Institutions & new political, economic, and social mechanisms

Practically ---- grow slowly

Solutions - New institutions should be given every chance of success.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient. - The passage talks not only about introduction of new institutions but it talks about new political, economic, and social mechanisms , so though this option seems promising it can be rejected.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems - True , fits better than (A)

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place. - We already know it from the passage , nothing new about it.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly. - Out of scope

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement. - True , we know it from the passage , nothing new about it.

PLZ Explain where I am missing ?

The link here is that, in order to create new institutions, old ones need to be kicked out. Look at the text, why old institutions cannot resolve modern problems?

Answer: because they are pashed out, and therefore new one take their place.

Hope it is clear.
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2015, 18:15
pqhai wrote:
ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact 1: Now problems require new solutions.
Fact 2: The solutions of these problems require
New institutions - factor #1
--AND--
New political, economic, and social mechanisms - factor #2.
Fact 3: But factor #2: institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly.
Conclusion: Factor #1: new institutions should be given EVERY CHANCE of success.

KEY is to how translate correctly the conclusion. The fact says: new problems need new solutions, which require both factor (1) and factor (2). But because factor (2) grows slowly, so the key to have new solutions created is “give every chances of success” for (1): new institutions.

On the other hand, every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient.
Wrong. Out of scope. The main point is giving new institution EVERY CHANCES. Thus, it doesn’t matter whether the old institution are ineffective.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems
Wrong. TEMPTING but wrong. New institution solve ONLY existing problem? Nope, The stimulus clearly mentioned the existing of “NEW” problems (new problems arise ...). Why B narrows the scope to “existing problems”? B is incorrect because it does not cover enough.

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place.
Correct. C restates exactly what the conclusion wants to convey. “give every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly.
Wrong. Out of scope. Same as B. We do not discuss the old institutions. The main point is the creating of new institutions. It does not matter the old institutions exist or not. They are in different categories. Thus, D is wrong.

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement.
Wrong. The stimulus says we could ignore factor 2: the institutions and political and economic arrangements, because they grow slowly. Thus, the argument just focus on factor 1: the creating of new institutions which should be given EVERY CHANCES of success.

Hope it helps.

Isn't the new factor (old institutions) external? Aren't we supposed to use only existing information in assumption related questions?
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2016, 10:13
pqhai wrote:
ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact 1: Now problems require new solutions.
Fact 2: The solutions of these problems require
New institutions - factor #1
--AND--
New political, economic, and social mechanisms - factor #2.
Fact 3: But factor #2: institutions and political and economic arrangements grow slowly.
Conclusion: Factor #1: new institutions should be given EVERY CHANCE of success.

KEY is to how translate correctly the conclusion. The fact says: new problems need new solutions, which require both factor (1) and factor (2). But because factor (2) grows slowly, so the key to have new solutions created is “give every chances of success” for (1): new institutions.

On the other hand, every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

The writer of the above makes which of the following assumptions:

(A) New institutions are needed because old institutions are inefficient.
Wrong. Out of scope. The main point is giving new institution EVERY CHANCES. Thus, it doesn’t matter whether the old institution are ineffective.

(B) New institutions are created in order to solve existing problems
Wrong. TEMPTING but wrong. New institution solve ONLY existing problem? Nope, The stimulus clearly mentioned the existing of “NEW” problems (new problems arise ...). Why B narrows the scope to “existing problems”? B is incorrect because it does not cover enough.

(C) As old institutions are phased out, new ones take their place.
Correct. C restates exactly what the conclusion wants to convey. “give every chances of success” means it doesn’t matter how many time new institutions are failed. If they fail, the new ones should be created.

(D) If there were no growth, old institutions would die more slowly.
Wrong. Out of scope. Same as B. We do not discuss the old institutions. The main point is the creating of new institutions. It does not matter the old institutions exist or not. They are in different categories. Thus, D is wrong.

(E) Socio-technological change requires new forms of institutional arrangement.
Wrong. The stimulus says we could ignore factor 2: the institutions and political and economic arrangements, because they grow slowly. Thus, the argument just focus on factor 1: the creating of new institutions which should be given EVERY CHANCES of success.

Hope it helps.

A seems valid in my opinion because it is absolutely an assumption, albeit one that's made to draw the intermediate conclusion "solutions of these problems require new institutions" rather than the main one. You could argue that A is invalid because an old institution that's relevant to the problem may not already exist, so there are no "old institutions" in scope that can be inefficient, but the problem simply says "old institutions", without detail on relevance or scope.

And as for C: why must the phase-out of an old institution be accompanied by a new one to take its place? What if society no longer needs what the old institution offered? In the world of option C, this possibility doesn't exist.
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2017, 10:09
Why do i think this question as leaning towards Must be true type more than it does towards Assumption type. ?
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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03 May 2017, 20:41
A response from David of Veritas Prep:

"In my opinion this is not a good question. I cannot find the source, I searched but only found one instance of it and that is on GMAT Club. The source there was listed as GMAT TEST PREPARATION, I am not sure what that means. Is it a company?

I do not see where either B or C would be correct.

B is wrong because "existing problems" are not mentioned it says, "The solutions of these [NEW] problems require new institutions as well as new political, economic, and social mechanisms."

C is weird. Why is it required that old institutions fade out? Cannot the new institutions just be built in addition to the old? Can we not just have some institutions just disappear without new ones?

An assumption must be REQUIRED. These answers are not. It is a bad question, in my opinion."
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Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise  [#permalink]

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18 May 2018, 07:32
Think about it in this way:

A) - A restatement of the premise. The questions (premise) already mentions that the old institutions do things slowly (hence, not so efficient). For GMAT question solving purpose, an assumption can't be a premise at the same time.

B) - The 2nd sentence of the question states very clearly that new institutions are needed to solve new problems.

C) - This one is tricky. I eliminated it in the first place then I was pretty sure the others are absolutely wrong. So I re-thought about this one. Actually think about it - a new problem needs a new solution and a new solution needs a new institution. Thus, if the new institution does not replace the old institution, how will people have the new solution to solve the new problem? If both exist, then it's weakening the argument since old institution is useless to face the new solutions. The question does not mention about old problems. So if we assume old problem is a factor in the argument then we are doing something out-of-scope. Try not to bring the real life awareness to this question. In the beginning I thought: Ok, even if we could have machine check-out but we can still have human cashier. This out-of-scope assumption is a poison to this question.

D), Growth of old institution is irrelevant here. Even if it can grow, will it be sufficient to fight the new problems? We are making assumptions to find assumptions if we pick D.

E), This simply repeats part of the premise. Same issue as A).

Feel free to discuss.
Re: Now problems require new solutions. And new problems arise &nbs [#permalink] 18 May 2018, 07:32
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